Références « SPORT » – Classement par premier auteur
Banffi, G, Krajewska, M, Melegati, G and Patacchini, M. (2008) « Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on haematological values in athletes ». Br J Sports Med 42 (10) 858. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18852309
Banfi, G, Lombardi, G, Colombini, A and Melegati, G. (2010) « Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes ». Sports Med 40 (6) 509-17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20524715
Cold therapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy (or stimulation) was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy, called whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), consists of exposure to very cold air that is maintained at -110 degrees C to -140 degrees C in special temperature-controlled cryochambers, generally for 2 minutes. WBC is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. In sports medicine, WBC has gained wider acceptance as a method to improve recovery from muscle injury. Unfortunately, there are few papers concerning the application of the treatment on athletes. The study of possible enhancement of recovery from injuries and possible modification of physiological parameters, taking into consideration the limits imposed by antidoping rules, is crucial for athletes and sports physicians for judging the real benefits and/or limits of WBC. According to the available literature, WBC is not harmful or detrimental in healthy subjects. The treatment does not enhance bone marrow production and could reduce the sport-induced haemolysis. WBC induces oxidative stress, but at a low level. Repeated treatments are apparently not able to induce cumulative effects; on the contrary, adaptive changes on antioxidant status are elicited–the adaptation is evident where WBC precedes or accompanies intense training. WBC is not characterized by modifications of immunological markers and leukocytes, and it seems to not be harmful to the immunological system. The WBC effect is probably linked to the modifications of immunological molecules having paracrine effects, and not to systemic immunological functions. In fact, there is an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, and a decrease in proinflammatory cytokine IL-2 and chemokine IL-8. Moreover, the decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 supported the anti-inflammatory response. Lysosomal membranes are stabilized by WBC, reducing potential negative effects on proteins of lysosomal enzymes. The cold stimulation shows positive effects on the muscular enzymes creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and it should be considered a procedure that facilitates athletes’ recovery. Cardiac markers troponin I and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, parameters linked to damage and necrosis of cardiac muscular tissue, but also to tissue repair, were unchanged, demonstrating that there was no damage, even minimal, in the heart during the treatment. N-Terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a parameter linked to heart failure and ventricular power decrease, showed an increase, due to cold stress. However, the NT-proBNP concentrations observed after WBC were lower than those measured after a heavy training session, suggesting that the treatment limits the increase of the parameter that is typical of physical exercise. WBC did not stimulate the pituitary-adrenal cortex axis: the hormonal modifications are linked mainly to the body’s adaptation to the stress, shown by an increase of noradrenaline (norepinephrine). We conclude that WBC is not harmful and does not induce general or specific negative effects in athletes. The treatment does not induce modifications of biochemical and haematological parameters, which could be suspected in athletes who may be cheating. The published data are generally not controversial, but further studies are necessary to confirm the present observations.
Banfi, G, Melegati, G, Barassi, A and d’Eril, GM. (2009) « Effects of the whole-body cryotherapy on NTproBNP, hsCRP and troponin I in athletes ». J Sci Med Sport 12 (6) 609-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835219
Whole-body cryotherapy refers to brief exposure to very cold air for treating symptoms of various illnesses. In sports medicine, whole-body cryotherapy is administered to improve recovery from muscular trauma. As specific studies are lacking, we measured cardiac markers in 10 top-level rugby players of the Italian National team before and after a 1-week course of daily sessions of whole-body cryotherapy. All subjects continued with the same training workload as that of the previous weeks. N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels increased but remained within the normal range, whilst troponin I (TnI) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were unchanged. Whole-body cryotherapy did not impair cardiac function in this sample of elite athletes.
Banfi, G, Melegati, G, Barassi, A, Dogliotti, G, Melzi d’Eril, G, Dugué, B and Corsi, MM. (2009) « Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on serum mediators of inflammation and serum muscle enzymes in athletes ». Journal of Thermal Biology 34 (2) 55-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T94-4TW14XJ-3/2/a491951edb23f393860ac19b92bd83db
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) covers a wide range of therapeutic applications and consists of briefly exposing the body to extremely cold air. In sports medicine, WBC is used to improve recovery from muscle injury; however, empirical studies on its application to this area are lacking. To fill this gap, we compared changes in immunological parameters (C3, IgA, IgM, IgG, C-reactive protein, PGE2), cytokines (IL-2, IL-8, IL-10), adhesion molecules (sICAM-1), and muscle enzymes (creatine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LAD]) before and after WBC in 10 top-level Italian National team rugby players. The subjects underwent five sessions on alternate days once daily for 1 week. During the study period, the training workload was the same as that of the previous weeks. Compared to baseline values, immunological parameters remained unchanged, while CK and LAD levels significantly decreased after treatment. No alterations in immunological function were observed but there is a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine. As measured by changes in serum CK and LAD concentrations, and cytokines pathway, short-term cold air exposure was found to improve recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury and/or damage associated with intense physical training.
Banfi, G, Melegati, G, Barassi, A, Dogliotti, G, Melzi d’Eril, G, Dugué, B and Corsi, MM. (2009) « Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on serum mediators of inflammation and serum muscle enzymes in athletes ». Journal of Thermal Biology 34 (2) 55-9.
Bieuzen, F, Louis, J and Hausswirth, C. (2015) « Cryothérapie corps entier et exercice ». Science & Sports 30 (2) 113-8.
Bleakley, CM, Bieuzen, F, Davison, GW and Costello, JT. (2014) « Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives ». Open Access J Sports Med 5 25-36. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24648779
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100 degrees C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC.
Bouzigon, R, Ravier, G, Dugue, B and Grappe, F. (2014) « The Use of Whole-Body Cryostimulation to Improve the Quality of Sleep in Athletes during High Level Standard Competitions ». British Journal of Sports Medicine 48 (7) 572.1-. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620074
BACKGROUND: This is a field study realized during basketball preparation tournaments for the European championship 2013 with men and women French team. During these competitions, athletes used Whole-Body Cryostimulation (WBC) exposures to enhance their recovery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of WBC on the quality of sleep (QS) in athletes during the night following the exposure. DESIGN: The preparation took place during one week in a training camp followed by three international matches in three days (one per day). SETTING: The study was performed with high standard level athletes men and women of the basketball French teams. PARTICIPANTS: 27 basketball players participated fully in the study (12 females, 11 males, age: 25.8+/-3.5 years; weight: 88.5+/-15.7 kg; height: 192.5+/-11.8 cm). RISK FACTOR ASSESSMENT: The WBC treatment was 3-min exposure between -110 degrees C and -150 degrees C in the morning or/and in the evening after a training or match session. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The QS was assessed every day before the exposure with a perceptual scale graduated from 1 « bad sleep » to 5 « restful sleep » adapted from Spiegel’s questionnaire. The data were analyzed using paired t-test. RESULTS: An improvement in the QS was observed in the night following WBC (3.7+/-0.7 vs 3.2+/-0.9, P<.05) compared with what was observed the night without previous WBC. CONCLUSIONS: Athletes experienced better sleep quality after WBC exposure. Even if the night duration was short during this period, they expressed they had a deeper, quieter and less disturbed sleep. The improvement of the QS during both competition and heavy training load periods appears of importance to enhance athletes’ recovery. Such situation may lead to 1) a better standing of the training load, 2) less fatigue before the matches and 3) a decrease of the injury risks.
Castellani, JW, IK, MB and Rhind, SG. (2002) « Cold exposure: human immune responses and intracellular cytokine expression ». Med Sci Sports Exerc 34 (12) 2013-20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12471310
It is commonly believed that exposure to cold environmental temperatures depresses immune function and increases the risk for infection. This review paper will 1) present an overview of human physiological responses to cold exposure, 2) present the human studies examining the effects of cold exposure on immune responses, and 3) summarize recent experiments from our laboratories examining the effects of exercise and fatigue on immune responses during subsequent cold exposure. Based on the review of the literature, there is no support for the concept that cold exposure depresses immune function.
Castle, PC, Macdonald, AL, Philp, A, Webborn, A, Watt, PW and Maxwell, NS. (2006) « Precooling leg muscle improves intermittent sprint exercise performance in hot, humid conditions ». J Appl Physiol (1985) 100 (4) 1377-84. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16339344
We used three techniques of precooling to test the hypothesis that heat strain would be alleviated, muscle temperature (Tmu) would be reduced, and as a result there would be delayed decrements in peak power output (PPO) during exercise in hot, humid conditions. Twelve male team-sport players completed four cycling intermittent sprint protocols (CISP). Each CISP consisted of twenty 2-min periods, each including 10 s of passive rest, 5 s of maximal sprint against a resistance of 7.5% body mass, and 105 s of active recovery. The CISP, preceded by 20 min of no cooling (Control), precooling via an ice vest (Vest), cold water immersion (Water), and ice packs covering the upper legs (Packs), was performed in hot, humid conditions (mean +/- SE; 33.7 +/- 0.3 degrees C, 51.6 +/- 2.2% relative humidity) in a randomized order. The rate of heat strain increase during the CISP was faster in Control than Water and Packs (P < 0.01), but it was similar to Vest. Packs and Water blunted the rise of Tmu until minute 16 and for the duration of the CISP (40 min), respectively (P < 0.01). Reductions in PPO occurred from minute 32 onward in Control, and an increase in PPO by approximately 4% due to Packs was observed (main effect; P < 0.05). The method of precooling determined the extent to which heat strain was reduced during intermittent sprint cycling, with leg precooling offering the greater ergogenic effect on PPO than either upper body or whole body cooling.
Cholewka, A, Drzazga, Z and Sieron, A. (2006) « Monitoring of whole body cryotherapy effects by thermal imaging: preliminary report ». Phys Med 22 (2) 57-62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17643893
In whole body cryotherapy the whole human body is exposed to low temperature below -100 degrees C in a special room called cryogenic chamber for a very short period of time (2-3 minutes). The impact of cold can cause many different biochemical and physiological reactions of the organism. The skin temperature response due to whole body cryotherapy was studied by means of infrared measurements. The thermograms of chosen body parts of patients suffering from low back pain were performed before and after whole body cooling on the 1(st), 5(th) and the last (10(th)) day of medical treatment. Infrared imaging performed after cold impact owing to the enhancement of the skin temperature profile may reveal a slight decrease of the inflammatory states as a result of the 10 sessions of cryotherapy.
Cholewka, A, Stanek, A, Sieron, A and Drzazga, Z. (2012) « Thermography study of skin response due to whole-body cryotherapy ». Skin Res Technol 18 (2) 180-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21507075
PURPOSE: Thermography and contact thermometry were used to study the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the lowering of skin temperature caused by whole-body cryotherapy. METHODS: The study was performed using the Thermovision Camera AGEMA Type 470 and A40. The thermograms of the chosen regions of interests were performed before and immediately after whole-body cryotherapy in a research room outside a cryogenic chamber where the temperature was stabilized. As an additional measurement technique during whole-body cryotherapy, contact thermometry was performed using thermocouples Ni-Cr-Ni-Al stacked to the skin surface. RESULTS: The results obtained showed differences in the decrease of skin temperature of predetermined body parts. The largest temperature decrease was observed on the lower extremities. Some differences in the thermal response of similar body parts influenced by the extremely low temperature, with regard to the BMI of volunteers, were observed. This was also found in the results of contact thermometry studies. The statistical analysis confirmed the results of thermography and thermometry studies. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of skin temperature decrease due to the extremely low temperature used in whole-body cryotherapy may be connected to a patient’s BMI.
Chudecka, M, Zaborski, D, Lubkowska, A, Grzesiak, W, Klimek, A and Modrzejewski, A. (2014) « Temperature changes in selected areas of body surface induced by systemic cryostimulation ». Aviat Space Environ Med 85 (12) 1170-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25479258
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and dynamics of temperature changes on the surface of selected body parts after systemic cryostimulation. The changes that occurred as a reaction to the 1st, 5th, and 10th session of a series of 10 sessions were also analyzed. METHODS: The study group consisted of 24 students (12 women and 12 men, approximately 21 yr of age) from the University School of Physical Education in Krakow. They were treated in a cryogenic chamber at the Rehabilitation Center in Krakow once daily for 10 d. The mean temperature in the chamber was -130 degrees C +/- 10 degrees C and the session duration was 3 min. Thermovisual examination of temperature distribution in the selected parts of the upper and lower extremities was conducted before and immediately after a session on the 1(st) (S1), 5(th) (S2), and 10(th) (S3) day of treatment. All thermograms were digitally recorded using a Flir Therma CAM TM Sc500 camera. RESULTS: On the 5th day of treatment, the examined group demonstrated the smallest mean temperature changes (4.57 degrees C-17.31 degrees C for the anterior part of the upper extremities in men and the posterior part of the lower extremities in women, respectively) before and after cryostimulation. The most significant temperature changes were observed in the group of women (6.80 degrees C-20.08 degrees C for the posterior parts of the upper extremities on S2 and the lower extremities on S3, respectively). CONCLUSION: There is an important difference in response to cryogenic temperature between men and women in a series.
Costello, JT, Algar, LA and Donnelly, AE. (2012) « Effects of whole-body cryotherapy (-110 degrees C) on proprioception and indices of muscle damage ». Scand J Med Sci Sports 22 (2) 190-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21477164
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on proprioceptive function, muscle force recovery following eccentric muscle contractions and tympanic temperature (T(TY) ). Thirty-six subjects were randomly assigned to a group receiving two 3-min treatments of -110 +/- 3 degrees C or 15 +/- 3 degrees C. Knee joint position sense (JPS), maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the knee extensors, force proprioception and T(TY) were recorded before, immediately after the exposure and again 15 min later. A convenience sample of 18 subjects also underwent an eccentric exercise protocol on their contralateral left leg 24 h before exposure. MVIC (left knee), peak power output (PPO) during a repeated sprint on a cycle ergometer and muscles soreness were measured pre-, 24, 48 and 72h post-treatment. WBC reduced T(TY) , by 0.3 degrees C, when compared with the control group (P<0.001). However, JPS, MVIC or force proprioception was not affected. Similarly, WBC did not effect MVIC, PPO or muscle soreness following eccentric exercise. WBC, administered 24 h after eccentric exercise, is ineffective in alleviating muscle soreness or enhancing muscle force recovery. The results of this study also indicate no increased risk of proprioceptive-related injury following WBC.
Costello, JT, Baker, PR, Minett, GM, Bieuzen, F, Stewart, IB and Bleakley, C. (2016) « Cochrane review: Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults ». J Evid Based Med http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26779801
Delayed-onset muscle soreness, or ‘DOMS’, affects many people after exercise and can impair future performance. It usually peaks one to four days after exercise and several strategies are used to overcome it. The effectiveness and safety of many of these strategies applied and promoted is unknown. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Costello, JT, Baker, PRA, Minett, GM, Bieuzen, F, Stewart, IB and Bleakley, C. (2015) Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. 10.1002/14651858.CD010789.pub2
Costello, JT, Culligan, K, Selfe, J and Donnelly, AE. (2012) « Muscle, skin and core temperature after -110 degrees c cold air and 8 degrees c water treatment ». PLoS One 7 (11) e48190. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23139763
The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the reductions in muscle, skin and core temperature following exposure to -110 degrees C whole body cryotherapy (WBC), and compare these to 8 degrees C cold water immersion (CWI). Twenty active male subjects were randomly assigned to a 4-min exposure of WBC or CWI. A minimum of 7 days later subjects were exposed to the other treatment. Muscle temperature in the right vastus lateralis (n=10); thigh skin (average, maximum and minimum) and rectal temperature (n=10) were recorded before and 60 min after treatment. The greatest reduction (P<0.05) in muscle (mean +/- SD; 1 cm: WBC, 1.6 +/- 1.2 degrees C; CWI, 2.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C; 2 cm: WBC, 1.2 +/- 0.7 degrees C; CWI, 1.7 +/- 0.9 degrees C; 3 cm: WBC, 1.6 +/- 0.6 degrees C; CWI, 1.7 +/- 0.5 degrees C) and rectal temperature (WBC, 0.3 +/- 0.2 degrees C; CWI, 0.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C) were observed 60 min after treatment. The largest reductions in average (WBC, 12.1 +/- 1.0 degrees C; CWI, 8.4 +/- 0.7 degrees C), minimum (WBC, 13.2 +/- 1.4 degrees C; CWI, 8.7 +/- 0.7 degrees C) and maximum (WBC, 8.8 +/- 2.0 degrees C; CWI, 7.2 +/- 1.9 degrees C) skin temperature occurred immediately after both CWI and WBC (P<0.05). Skin temperature was significantly lower (P<0.05) immediately after WBC compared to CWI. The present study demonstrates that a single WBC exposure decreases muscle and core temperature to a similar level of those experienced after CWI. Although both treatments significantly reduced skin temperature, WBC elicited a greater decrease compared to CWI. These data may provide information to clinicians and researchers attempting to optimise WBC and CWI protocols in a clinical or sporting setting.
Costello, JT, Donnelly, AE, Karki, A and Selfe, J. (2014) « Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature ». Int J Sports Med 35 (1) 35-40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23780900
This study sought to (a) compare and contrast the effect of 2 commonly used cryotherapy treatments, 4 min of -110 degrees C whole body cryotherapy and 8 degrees C cold water immersion, on knee skin temperature and (b) establish whether either protocol was capable of achieving a skin temperature (<13 degrees C) believed to be required for analgesic purposes. After ethics committee approval and written informed consent was obtained, 10 healthy males (26.5+/-4.9 yr, 183.5+/-6.0 cm, 90.7+/-19.9 kg, 26.8+/-5.0 kg/m2, 23.0+/-9.3% body fat; mean+/-SD) participated in this randomised controlled crossover study. Skin temperature around the patellar region was assessed in both knees via non-contact, infrared thermal imaging and recorded pre-, immediately post-treatment and every 10 min thereafter for 60 min. Compared to baseline, average, minimum and maximum skin temperatures were significantly reduced (p<0.001) immediately post-treatment and at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after both cooling modalities. Average and minimum skin temperatures were lower (p<0.05) immediately after whole body cryotherapy (19.0+/-0.9 degrees C) compared to cold water immersion (20.5+/-0.6 degrees C). However, from 10 to 60 min post, the average, minimum and maximum skin temperatures were lower (p<0.05) following the cold water treatment. Finally, neither protocol achieved a skin temperature believed to be required to elicit an analgesic effect.
Costello, JT, McInerney, CD, Bleakley, CM, Selfe, J and Donnelly, AE. (2012) « The use of thermal imaging in assessing skin temperature following cryotherapy: a review ». Journal of Thermal Biology 37 (2) 103-10. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030645651100163X
Background Cryotherapy is used in various clinical and sporting settings to reduce odema, decrease nerve conduction velocity, decrease tissue metabolism and to facilitate recovery after exercise induced muscle damage. The basic premise of cryotherapy is to cool tissue temperature and various modalities of cryotherapy such as whole body cryotherapy, cold spray, cryotherapy cuffs, frozen peas, cold water immersion, ice, and cold packs are currently being used to achieve this. However, despite its widespread use, little is known regarding the effectiveness of different cryotherapy modalities to reduce skin temperature. Objectives To provide a synopsis of the use of thermal imaging as a method of assessing skin temperature following cryotherapy and to report the magnitude of skin temperature reductions associated with various modalities of cooling. Design Structured narrative review. Methods Three electronic databases were searched using keywords and MESH headings related to the use of thermal imaging in the assessment of skin temperature following cryotherapy. A hand-search of reference lists and relevant journals and text books complemented the electronic search. Summary Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. A skin temperature reduction of 5–15 °C, in accordance with the recent PRICE (Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) guidelines, were achieved using cold air, ice massage, crushed ice, cryotherapy cuffs, ice pack, and cold water immersion. There is evidence supporting the use and effectiveness of thermal imaging in order to access skin temperature following the application of cryotherapy. Conclusions Thermal imaging is a safe and non-invasive method of collecting skin temperature. Although further research is required, in terms of structuring specific guidelines and protocols, thermal imaging appears to be an accurate and reliable method of collecting skin temperature data following cryotherapy. Currently there is ambiguity regarding the optimal skin temperature reductions in a medical or sporting setting. However, this review highlights the ability of several different modalities of cryotherapy to reduce skin temperature.
Costello, JT, McNamara, PM, O’Connell, ML, Algar, LA, Leahy, MJ and Donnelly, AE. (2014) « Tissue viability imaging of skin microcirculation following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (-110°C) and cold water immersion (8°C) ». Arch Exerc Health Dis 4 (1) 243-50. Cryotherapy is currently used in various clinical, rehabilitative, and sporting settings. However, very little is known regarding the impact of cooling on the microcirculatory response. Objectives: The present study sought to examine the influence of two commonly employed modalities of cryotherapy, whole body cryotherapy (WBC; -110°C) and cold water immersion (CWI; 8±1°C), on skin microcirculation in the mid- thigh region. Methods: The skin area examined was a 3 × 3 cm located between the most anterior aspect of the inguinal fold and the patella. Following 10 minutes of rest, 5 healthy, active males were exposed to either WBC for 3 minutes or CWI for 5 minutes in a randomised order. Volunteers lay supine for five minutes after treatment, in order to monitor the variation of red blood cell (RBC) concentration in the region of interest for a duration of 40 minutes. Microcirculation response was assessed using a non-invasive, portable instrument known as a Tissue Viability imaging system. After a minimum of seven days, the protocol was repeated. Subjective assessment of the volunteer’s thermal comfort and thermal sensation was also recorded. Results: RBC was altered following exposure to both WBC and CWI but appeared to stabilise approximately 35 minutes after treatments. Both WBC and CWI affected thermal sensation (p < 0.05); however no between- group differences in thermal comfort or sensation were recorded (p > 0.05). Conclusions: As both WBC and CWI altered RBC, further study is necessary to examine the mechanism for this alteration during whole body cooling.
de Almeida, P, Tomazoni, SS, Frigo, L, de Carvalho Pde, T, Vanin, AA, Santos, LA, . . . Leal-Junior, EC. (2014) « What is the best treatment to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine release in acute skeletal muscle injury induced by trauma in rats: low-level laser therapy, diclofenac, or cryotherapy? ». Lasers Med Sci 29 (2) 653-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23812849
Currently, treatment of muscle injuries represents a challenge in clinical practice. In acute phase, the most employed therapies are cryotherapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In the last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has becoming a promising therapeutic agent; however, its effects are not fully known. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sodium diclofenac (topical application), cryotherapy, and LLLT on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels after a controlled model of muscle injury. For such, we performed a single trauma in tibialis anterior muscle of rats. After 1 h, animals were treated with sodium diclofenac (11.6 mg/g of solution), cryotherapy (20 min), or LLLT (904 nm; superpulsed; 700 Hz; 60 mW mean output power; 1.67 W/cm(2); 1, 3, 6 or 9 J; 17, 50, 100 or 150 s). Assessment of interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 (IL-1beta and IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels was performed at 6 h after trauma employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. LLLT with 1 J dose significantly decreased (p < 0.05) IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels compared to non-treated injured group as well as diclofenac and cryotherapy groups. On the other hand, treatment with diclofenac and cryotherapy does not decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine levels compared to the non-treated injured group. Therefore, we can conclude that 904 nm LLLT with 1 J dose has better effects than topical application of diclofenac or cryotherapy in acute inflammatory phase after muscle trauma.
De Nardi, M, La Torre, A, Benis, R, Sarabon, N and Fonda, B. (2015) « Acute effects of whole-body cryotherapy on sit-and-reach amplitude in women and men ». Cryobiology 71 (3) 511-3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26515297
Flexibility is an intrinsic property of body tissues, which among other factors determines the range of motion (ROM). A decrease in neural activation of the muscle has been linked with greater ROM. Cryotherapy is an effective technique to reduces neural activation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if a single session of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) affects ROM. 60 women and 60 men were divided into two groups (control and experimental). After the initial sit-and-reach test, experimental group performed a 150 s session of WBC, whereas the control group stayed in thermo-neutral environment. Immediately after, both groups performed another sit-and-reach test. A 3-way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant timexgroup and time x gender interaction. Experimental groups improved sit-and-reach amplitude to a greater extend than the control group. Our results support the hypothesis that ROM is increased immediately after a single session of WBC.
Dugue, B, Smolander, J, Westerlund, T, Oksa, J, Nieminen, R, Moilanen, E and Mikkelsson, M. (2005) « Acute and long-term effects of winter swimming and whole-body cryotherapy on plasma antioxidative capacity in healthy women ». Scand J Clin Lab Invest 65 (5) 395-402. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16081362
The effects of severe cold stress on total peroxyl radical trapping antioxidant capacity of plasma (TRAP) were studied in two groups of healthy women: a whole-body cryotherapy group (WBC, n = 10) and a winter swimming group (WS, n = 10). The biovariability of TRAP values was also analysed. The WBC group was exposed to -110 degrees C for 2 min, whereas the exposure for the WS group lasted 20 s in ice-cold water. Sessions were organized three times per week for 12 weeks. Blood specimens were collected at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks at rest, 2 and 35 min after the cold exposures and at the corresponding times without cold exposure on a separate day. Conventional methods were used to determine TRAP values. The between-subject variation was 13.6% and the within-subject variation 6.4%. The index of individuality was 0.46, and the index of heterogeneity was 0.079. These results indicate a marked heterogeneity among subjects. During the first 4 weeks, the mean TRAP value significantly increased at 2 min after cold exposure in the WBC group, returning to baseline 35 min after the exposure. Similar changes were observed in the WS group. However, all changes due to cold were relatively mild (<5%). After 4 weeks no changes in TRAP values after the cold exposures were noticed and no long-term changes in basal TRAP values were observed. In the main, regular WBC and WS do not seem to be harmful as far as plasma antioxidative capacity is concerned.
Dugue, BM. (2015) « An attempt to improve Ferreira-Junior model concerning the anti-inflammatory action of whole-body cryotherapy after exercise induced muscular damage (EIMD) ». Front Physiol 6 35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25729365
Dybek, T, Szyguła, R, Klimek, A and Tubek, S. (2012) « Impact of 10 Sessions of Whole Body Cryostimulation on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity and on Selected Blood Count Parameters ». Biology of Sport 29 (1) 39-43.
Ferreira-Junior, JB, Bottaro, M, Loenneke, JP, Vieira, A, Vieira, CA and Bemben, MG. (2014) « Could whole-body cryotherapy (below -100 degrees C) improve muscle recovery from muscle damage? ». Front Physiol 5 247. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25071592
Ferreira-Junior, JB, Bottaro, M, Vieira, A, Siqueira, AF, Vieira, CA, Durigan, JL, . . . Bemben, MG. (2015) « One session of partial-body cryotherapy (-110 degrees C) improves muscle damage recovery ». Scand J Med Sci Sports 25 (5) e524-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25556301
To evaluate the effects of a single session of partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) on muscle recovery, 26 young men performed a muscle-damaging protocol that consisted of five sets of 20 drop jumps with 2-min rest intervals between sets. After the exercise, the PBC group (n = 13) was exposed to 3 min of PBC at -110 degrees C, and the control group (n = 13) was exposed to 3 min at 21 degrees C. Anterior thigh muscle thickness, isometric peak torque, and muscle soreness of knee extensors were measured pre, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h following exercise. Peak torque did not return to baseline in control group (P < 0.05), whereas the PBC group recovered peak torques 96 h post exercise (P > 0.05). Peak torque was also higher after PBC at 72 and 96 h compared with control group (P < 0.05). Muscle thickness increased after 24 h in the control group (P < 0.05) and was significantly higher compared with the PBC group at 24 and 96 h (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness returned to baseline for the PBC group at 72 h compared with 96 h for controls. These results indicate that PBC after strenuous exercise may enhance recovery from muscle damage.
Ferreira-Junior, JB, Bottaro, M, Vieira, CA, Soares, SR, Vieira, A, Cleto, VA, . . . Brown, LE. (2014) « Effects of partial-body cryotherapy (- 110 degrees C) on muscle recovery between high-intensity exercise bouts ». Int J Sports Med 35 (14) 1155-60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25144438
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single partial-body cryotherapy bout between training sessions on strength recovery. 12 young men (23.9+/-5.9 years) were randomly exposed to 2 different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) Partial-body cryotherapy (subjects were exposed to 3 min of partial-body cryotherapy at – 110 degrees C between 2 high-intensity training sessions); 2) Control (subjects were not exposed to partial-body cryotherapy between 2 high-intensity training sessions). Subjects were exposed to partial-body cryotherapy after the first training session. The 2 knee extension high-intensity training sessions were separated by a 40-min rest interval. Knee extension training consisted of 6 sets of 10 repetitions at 60 degrees .s(-1) for concentric actions and 6 sets of 10 at 180.s(-1) for eccentric actions. The decrease in eccentric peak torque and total work was significantly (p<0.05) less after partial-body cryotherapy (5.6 and 2%, respectively) when compared to control (16 and 11.6%, respectively). However, the decrease in concentric peak torque and total work was not different (p>0.05) between partial-body cryotherapy (9.4 and 6.5%, respectively) and control (7.5 and 5.2%, respectively). These results indicate that the use of partial-body cryotherapy between-training sessions can enhance eccentric muscle performance recovery.
Ferreira-Junior, JB, Vieira, CA, Soares, SR, Guedes, R, Rocha Junior, VA, Simoes, HG, . . . Bottaro, M. (2014) « Effects of a single whole body cryotherapy (-110 degrees C) bout on neuromuscular performance of the elbow flexors during isokinetic exercise ». Int J Sports Med 35 (14) 1179-83. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25254899
It has been demonstrated that body cooling may decrease neuromuscular performance. However, the effect of a single session of whole body cryotherapy (-110 degrees C) on neuromuscular performance has not been well documented. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single exposure of WBC on elbow flexor neuromuscular performance. Thirteen physically active, healthy young men (age=27.9+/-4.2 years, mass=79.4+/-9.7 kg, height=176.7+/-5.2 cm) were randomly exposed to 2 different experimental conditions separated by a minimum of 72 h: 1) whole body cryotherapy- 3 min at -110 degrees C; 2) control- 3 min at 21 degrees C. All subjects were tested for maximal isokinetic elbow flexion at 60 degrees .s(-1) 30 min before and 10 min after each condition. There were no significant differences in peak torque, average power, total work or muscle activity between conditions. Peak torque was lower at post-test compared to pre-test in both conditions (F=6.58, p=0.025). However, there were no differences between pre-test and post-test for any other variables. These results indicate that strength specialists, athletic trainers and physical therapists might utilize whole body cryotherapy before training or rehabilitation without compromising neuromuscular performance of the elbow flexors.
Fonda, B, De Nardi, M and Sarabon, N. (2014) « Effects of whole-body cryotherapy duration on thermal and cardio-vascular response ». J Therm Biol 42 52-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24802149
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is the exposure of minimally dressed participants to very cold air, either in a specially designed chamber (cryo-chamber) or cabin (cryo-cabin), for a short period of time. Practitioners are vague when it comes to recommendations on the duration of a single session. Recommended exposure for cryo-chamber is 150s, but no empirically based recommendations are available for a cryo-cabin. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine thermal and cardio-vascular responses after 90, 120, 150 and 180s of WBC in a cryo-cabin. Our hypothesis was that skin temperature would be significantly lower after longer exposers. Twelve male participants (age 23.9+/-4.2 years) completed four WBC of different durations (90, 120, 150 and 180s) in a cryo-cabin. Thermal response, heart rate and blood pressure were measured prior, immediately after, 5min after and 30min after the session. Skin temperature differed significantly among different durations, except between 150 and 180s. There was no significant difference in heart rate and blood pressure. Thermal discomfort during a single session displayed a linear increase throughout the whole session. Our results indicate that practitioners and clinicians using cryo-cabin for WBC do not need to perform sessions longer than 150s. We have shown that longer sessions do not substantially affect thermal and cardio-vascular response, but do increase thermal discomfort.
Fonda, B and Sarabon, N. (2013) « Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise: a crossover study ». Scand J Med Sci Sports 23 (5) e270-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23614691
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -19 degrees C) in the cryo-cabin. During the recovery period, subjects were tested for biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, and physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal isometric torque production, and maximally explosive isometric torque production). Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P < 0.05) in control group, which indicates the presence of muscle damage. Significant interaction between the control and WBC condition was evident for the rate of torque development (P < 0.05). Pain measures substantially differed between the WBC and the control condition after the exercise. Results of this study are not completely supportive of the use of WBC for recovery enhancement after strenuous training.
Galliera, E, Dogliotti, G, Melegati, G, Corsi Romanelli, MM, Cabitza, P and Banfi, G. (2013) « Bone remodelling biomarkers after whole body cryotherapy (WBC) in elite rugby players ». Injury 44 (8) 1117-21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23000054
Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of a brief exposure to extreme cold air (-110 degrees C) in a controlled chamber and it is applied in sports medicine to improve recovery from musculoskeletal trauma. The aim of this study is to better define the beneficial effect of WCB on the musculoskeletal system of athletes, in particular on bone remodelling. Remodelling osteoimmunological biomarkers OPG, RANKL and RANK were measured after WBC treatment in 10 male rugby players randomly selected from the Italian National team. OPG levels were increased significantly, supporting the view that WBC induces an osteogenic effect. Further studies evaluating the effect of WBC on bone metabolism are desirable.
Grasso, D, Lanteri, P, Di Bernardo, C, Mauri, C, Porcelli, S, Colombini, A, . . . Lombardi, G. (2014) « Salivary steroid hormone response to whole-body cryotherapy in elite rugby players ». J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 28 (2) 291-300. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25001661
Saliva represents a low stress, not-invasively collected matrix that allows steroid hormone monitoring in athletes by reflecting type, intensity and duration of exercise. Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of short whole-body exposures to extremely cold air (-110 degrees to -140 degrees C) which, despite being initially used to treat inflammatory diseases, is currently acquiring increasing popularity in sports medicine. Cryostimulation practice is now widely accepted as an effective treatment to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this work was to study the changes of steroid hormones in saliva of rugby players after both 2 and 14 consecutive WBC sessions, in order to investigate the effects of the treatment on their salivary steroid hormonal profile. Twenty-five professional rugby players, belonging to the Italian National Team, underwent a 7-day cryotherapy protocol consisting of 2 daily sessions. Saliva samples were taken in the morning prior to the start of the WBC, in the evening after the end of the second WBC, and in the morning of the day after the last WBC session. The samples were analyzed for cortisol, DHEA, testosterone and estradiol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cortisol and DHEA showed a reduction already after the 2 WBC sessions of the first day; after 14 consecutive WBC sessions cortisol, DHEA, and estradiol levels decreased, while testosterone increased as did the testosterone to cortisol ratio. These results were confirmed by the fact that the majority of subjects showed variations exceeding the critical difference (CD). In conclusion, we found that WBC acutely affects the salivary steroid hormone profile, and the results are evident already after only one twice-daily session. Most significantly, after one-week of consecutive twice-daily WBC sessions, all the hormones were modified. This is the first experimental report that links changes in the hormonal asset to WBC.
Guilhem, G, Hug, F, Couturier, A, Regnault, S, Bournat, L, Filliard, JR and Dorel, S. (2013) « Effects of air-pulsed cryotherapy on neuromuscular recovery subsequent to exercise-induced muscle damage ». Am J Sports Med 41 (8) 1942-51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23739686
BACKGROUND: Localized cooling has been proposed as an effective strategy to limit the deleterious effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on neuromuscular function. However, the literature reports conflicting results. PURPOSE: This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the effects of a new treatment, localized air-pulsed cryotherapy (-30 degrees C), on the recovery time-course of neuromuscular function following a strenuous eccentric exercise. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: A total of 24 participants were included in either a control group (CONT) or a cryotherapy group (CRYO). Immediately after 3 sets of 20 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of elbow flexors, and then 1, 2, and 3 days after exercise, the CRYO group received a cryotherapy treatment (3 x 4 minutes at -30 degrees C separated by 1 minute). The day before and 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 days after exercise, several parameters were quantified: maximal isometric torque and its associated maximal electromyographic activity recorded by a 64-channel electrode, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), biceps brachii transverse relaxation time (T2) measured using magnetic resonance imaging, creatine kinase activity, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. RESULTS: Maximal isometric torque decreased similarly for the CONT (-33% +/- 4%) and CRYO groups (-31% +/- 6%). No intergroup differences were found for DOMS, electromyographic activity, creatine kinase activity, and T2 level averaged across the whole biceps brachii. C-reactive protein significantly increased for CONT (+93% at 72 hours, P < .05) but not for CRYO. Spatial analysis showed that cryotherapy delayed the significant increase of T2 and the decrease of electromyographic activity level for CRYO compared with CONT (between day 1 and day 3) in the medio-distal part of the biceps brachii. CONCLUSION: Although some indicators of muscle damage after severe eccentric exercise were delayed (ie, local formation of edema and decrease of muscle activity) by repeated air-pulsed cryotherapy, we provide evidence that this cooling procedure failed to improve long-term recovery of muscle performance. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Four applications of air-pulsed cryotherapy in the 3 days after a strenuous eccentric exercise are ineffective overall in promoting long-term muscle recovery. Further studies taking into account the amount of exercise-induced muscle damage would allow investigators to make stronger conclusions regarding the inefficiency of this recovery modality.
Hammond, LE, Cuttell, S, Nunley, P and Meyler, J. (2014) « Anthropometric characteristics and sex influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy ». Biomed Res Int 2014 628724. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25061612
This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (-60 degrees C for 30 seconds, -110 degrees C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (DeltaT sk) were calculated. DeltaT sk was significantly greater in females (12.07 +/- 1.55 degrees C) than males (10.12 +/- 1.86 degrees C; t(30) = -3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and DeltaT sk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and DeltaT sk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols.
Hassan, ES. (2011) « Thermal therapy and delayed onset muscle soreness ». J Sports Med Phys Fitness 51 (2) 249-54. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21681159
AIM: In this study the application of cold water (CW) or warm water (WW) for the recovery delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was investigated in comparison with a control group without the application of water (CO) after eccentric exercise. METHODS: The main study took place in a randomized, controlled study design on 60 healthy, moderately athletic young men (aged 22 years), classified into 3 groups with 20 men per group. The load was equivalent to the 70% of 1 RM, one-repetition maximum at the Deadlift (Bent Leg). Exercise consisted of 10 sets of 10 eccentric contractions of the Hamstrings muscle group after which they were exposed to either CW (20 degrees C), or WW (38 degrees C) or no intervention at all (CO). Blood samples were taken 30min before, after and 1, 2 and 6 hours after performing the exercise. RESULTS: The exercise showed to a clear increase in the muscle stress parameters without significant difference in results between the groups. The application of WW after exercise resulted in a prominent decrease in muscle cell reaction. In addition, a significant decrease was noticed in the skeletal troponin I (sTnI), creatin kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Mb) after ww. CONCLUSION: These results are indicative that the exposure of CW (20 degrees C/30 min) after exercise would lead to an elevated muscle cells stress reaction. On the other hand exposure to WW (38 degrees C/30 min) leads to a decrease in the exercise-induced deflection of muscle cell reaction.
Hausswirth, C. (2013) Cooling and Whole-Body Cryostimulation (WBC) for Recovery Strategies in Sport: Lessons Learnt from Research and Practice at INSEP. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NC-1wFXKUAg
Hausswirth, C, Bieuzen, F, Barbiche, E and Brisswalter, J. (2010) « Réponses physiologiques liées à une immersion en eau froide et à une cryostimulation-cryothérapie en corps entier : effets sur la récupération après un exercice musculaire. / Physiological responses after a cold-water immersion and a whole-body cryostimulation: Effects on recovery after a muscular exercise ». Science & Sports 25 (3) 121-31. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=52804320&lang=fr&site=ehost-live
Summary: Aims: This review focuses first of all on the effects of the cold and/or contrast water immersion techniques on muscular recovery to determine practical implications for athletes. Then, the present review summarizes the effects of whole-body cryotherapy and its potential benefits. Actualities: The multitude of protocols concerning the cold water immersion technique and the contrast water technique explains the large variety of the results reported in the literature on this topic. This recovery strategy seems mainly recommended after strength training and anaerobic solicitations, when it is planed during the 20min following the fatiguing task. Immersion in warm water is not supported by the literature; only the depth of the immersion looks essential, an immersion to the neck is associated with positive effects. Concerning the whole-body cryotherapy, few data are available about its benefits on recovery after exercise. Nevertheless, the literature reports interesting results on its positive impact relating to inflammatory factors, antioxidant status, mood and syndromes of depression. Perspectives and prospects: Further studies are needed to investigate the potential positive effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery by athletes. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
Résumé: Objectifs: Cette revue examine tout d’abord l’efficacité de la récupération musculaire par l’immersion en eau froide ou eau contrastée (chaud–froid) et détaille les différents protocoles scientifiques afin d’obtenir des applications pratiques pour les athlètes. Ensuite, cette revue propose une synthèse sur les effets de la cryothérapie en corps entier et les bénéfices ou non apportées par cette modalité relativement récente. Actualités: La multitude des protocoles ayant investigué les effets de la récupération par immersion en eau froide et/ou contrastée expliquent les résultats hétérogènes rapportés par les différents travaux menés sur les effets de cette technique sur la récupération musculaire. Cette méthode semble être préconisée largement après des exercices de musculation ou des exercices à forte contrainte énergétique, lorsqu’elle est programmée dans les 20minutes qui succèdent l’exercice fatigant. L’immersion en eau chaude fait rarement l’unanimité scientifique, surtout si l’exercice préalable est à prédominance anaérobie ; seule la profondeur de l’immersion paraît vraiment essentielle, une immersion jusqu’au cou semble donner des résultats concluants. Pour ce qui est de la cryothérapie en corps entier, peu de données actuelles sont disponibles concernant la récupération avec cette modalité suite à un exercice. Cependant, la littérature scientifique nous donne des indications sur des effets bénéfiques de certains paramètres de l’inflammation lorsque cette pratique est réalisée, sur une possible augmentation du statut antioxydant, ainsi que sur une large augmentation de l’humeur et des syndromes dépressifs. Perspectives et projets: Il apparaît principalement que des études complémentaires davantage ciblées sur l’activité physique sont à mener pour nous renseigner sur la capacité ou non des athlètes à mieux récupérer en utilisant la cryothérapie en corps entier. </ce:abst Copyright 2010 Elsevier
Hausswirth, C, Louis, J, Bieuzen, F, Pournot, H, Fournier, J, Filliard, JR and Brisswalter, J. (2011) « Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners ». PLoS One 6 (12) e27749. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22163272
Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.
Hausswirth, C, Schaal, K, Le Meur, Y, Bieuzen, F, Filliard, JR, Volondat, M and Louis, J. (2013) « Parasympathetic activity and blood catecholamine responses following a single partial-body cryostimulation and a whole-body cryostimulation ». PLoS One 8 (8) e72658. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23991134
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a single whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) and a partial-body cryostimulation (PBC) (i.e., not exposing the head to cold) on indices of parasympathetic activity and blood catecholamines. Two groups of 15 participants were assigned either to a 3-min WBC or PBC session, while 10 participants constituted a control group (CON) not receiving any cryostimulation. Changes in thermal, physiological and subjective variables were recorded before and during the 20-min after each cryostimulation. According to a qualitative statistical analysis, an almost certain decrease in skin temperature was reported for all body regions immediately after the WBC (mean decrease+/-90% CL, -13.7+/-0.7 degrees C) and PBC (-8.3+/-0.3 degrees C), which persisted up to 20-min after the session. The tympanic temperature almost certainly decreased only after the WBC session (-0.32+/-0.04 degrees C). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were very likely increased after the WBC session, whereas these changes were trivial in the other groups. In addition, heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-10.9%) and WBC (-15.2%) sessions, in a likely greater proportion for WBC compared to PBC. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF) were very likely increased after PBC (RMSSD: +54.4%, HF: +138%) and WBC (RMSSD: +85.2%, HF: +632%) sessions without any marked difference between groups. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations were likely to very likely increased after PBC (+57.4%) and WBC (+76.2%), respectively. Finally, cold and comfort sensations were almost certainly altered after WBC and PBC, sensation of discomfort being likely more pronounced after WBC than PBC. Both acute cryostimulation techniques effectively stimulated the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation. The results of this study also suggest that a whole-body cold exposure induced a larger stimulation of the ANS compared to partial-body cold exposure.
Hohenauer, E, Taeymans, J, Baeyens, JP, Clarys, P and Clijsen, R. (2015) « The Effect of Post-Exercise Cryotherapy on Recovery Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis ». PLoS One 10 (9) e0139028. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26413718
The aim of this review and meta-analysis was to critically determine the possible effects of different cooling applications, compared to non-cooling, passive post-exercise strategies, on recovery characteristics after various, exhaustive exercise protocols up to 96 hours (hrs). A total of n = 36 articles were processed in this study. To establish the research question, the PICO-model, according to the PRISMA guidelines was used. The Cochrane’s risk of bias tool, which was used for the quality assessment, demonstrated a high risk of performance bias and detection bias. Meta-analyses of subjective characteristics, such as delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and objective characteristics like blood plasma markers and blood plasma cytokines, were performed. Pooled data from 27 articles revealed, that cooling and especially cold water immersions affected the symptoms of DOMS significantly, compared to the control conditions after 24 hrs recovery, with a standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g) of -0.75 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of -1.20 to -0.30. This effect remained significant after 48 hrs (Hedges’ g: -0.73, 95% CI: -1.20 to -0.26) and 96 hrs (Hedges’ g: -0.71, 95% CI: -1.10 to -0.33). A significant difference in lowering the symptoms of RPE could only be observed after 24 hrs of recovery, favouring cooling compared to the control conditions (Hedges’ g: -0.95, 95% CI: -1.89 to -0.00). There was no evidence, that cooling affects any objective recovery variable in a significant way during a 96 hrs recovery period.
Klimek, AT, Lubkowska, A, Szygula, Z, Chudecka, M and Fraczek, B. (2010) « Influence of the ten sessions of the whole body cryostimulation on aerobic and anaerobic capacity ». Int J Occup Med Environ Health 23 (2) 181-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20682489
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of whole body cryostimulation on aerobic and anaerobic capacities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test the hypothesis that whole body cryostimulation improves physical capacity, thirty subjects (fifteen males and fifteen females) undertook two ergocycle trials before and after the ten sessions of cryogenic chamber treatment. To assess baseline aerobic capacity, the progressive cycle ergometer test was applied. This allowed determination of maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory thresholds. Twenty-second Wingate test was performed to assess baseline levels of anaerobic power. After finishing the treatments in the cryogenic chamber, the exercise protocol was repeated. Before the first, and after the last whole body cryostimulation, venous blood samples were drawn to determine basic blood values, including levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit. RESULTS: There were no changes in aerobic capacity, in both females and males, after ten sessions of 3-minute-long exposures to cryogenic temperature (-130 degrees C). Participation in the whole body cryostimulation caused an increase in maximal anaerobic power in males (from 11.1 to 11.9 W x kg(-1); P < 0.05), but not in females. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that whole body cryostimulation can be beneficial, at least in males, for increasing anaerobic capacity in sport disciplines involving speed and strength.
Klimek, AT, Lubkowska, A, Szygula, Z, Fraczek, B and Chudecka, M. (2011) « The influence of single whole body cryostimulation treatment on the dynamics and the level of maximal anaerobic power ». Int J Occup Med Environ Health 24 (2) 184-91. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21590430
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this work was to determine the dynamics of maximal anaerobic power (MAP) of the lower limbs, following a single whole body cryostimulation treatment (WBC), in relation to the temperature of thigh muscles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects included 15 men and 15 women with an average age (+/- SD) of 21.6 +/- 1.2 years. To evaluate the level of anaerobic power, the Wingate test was applied. The subjects were submitted to 6 WBC treatments at -130 degrees C once a day. After each session they performed a single Wingate test in the 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90th min after leaving the cryogenic chamber. The order of the test was randomized. All Wingate tests were preceded by an evaluation of thigh surface temperature with the use of a thermovisual camera. RESULTS: The average thigh surface temperature (T(av)) in both men and women dropped significantly after the whole body cryostimulation treatment, and next increased gradually. In women T(av) remained decreased for 75 min, whereas in men it did not return to the basal level until 90th min. A statistically insignificant decrease in MAP was observed in women after WBC. On the contrary, a non-significant increase in MAP was observed in men. The course of changes in MAP following the treatment was similar in both sexes to the changes in thigh surface temperature, with the exception of the period between 15th and 30th min. The shorter time to obtain MAP was observed in women till 90th min and in men till 45 min after WBC compared to the initial level. CONCLUSIONS: A single whole body cryostimulation may have a minor influence on short-term physical performance of supramaximal intensity, but it leads to improvement of velocity during the start as evidenced by shorter time required to obtain MAP.
Korzonek-Szlacheta, I, Wielkoszynski, T, Stanek, A, Swietochowska, E, Karpe, J and Sieron, A. (2007) « [Effect of whole body cryotherapy on the levels of some hormones in professional soccer players] ». Endokrynol Pol 58 (1) 27-32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17354202
INTRODUCTION: The study was undertaken to determine blood serum concentrations of selected steroid hormones (estradiol–E(2), testosterone–T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate–DHEA-S) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in professional footballers subjected to whole body cryotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two clinically healthy males, mean age 26.7 years, were studied. The subjects underwent ten sessions of whole body cryotherapy in Wroclaw-type chamber, with kinesitherapy following each session. Blood samples were collected before and two days after the treatment and the results were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After the treatment there was a significant decrease in the concentrations of T (6.01 vs. 4.80 ng/mL, p < 0.01) and E(2) (102.3 vs. 47.5 pg/mL, p < 0.00001), but no DHEA-S and LH. The T/E(2) ratio showed a significant increase form 72.2 to 136.5 (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Whole body cryotherapy leads to a significant decrease in serum T and E(2), with no effect on LH and DHEAS levels. As a results of cryotherapy, the T/E(2) ratio was significant increased. The changes observed are probably due to cryotherapy-induced alternation in the blood supply to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, as well as to modulation of the activity of aromatase which is responsible for conversion of testosterone and androstenedione to estrogens.
Kruger, M, de Marees, M, Dittmar, KH, Sperlich, B and Mester, J. (2015) « Whole-body cryotherapy’s enhancement of acute recovery of running performance in well-trained athletes ». Int J Sports Physiol Perform 10 (5) 605-12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25561577
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of a whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) protocol (3 min at -110 degrees C) on acute recovery and key variables of endurance performance during high-intensity intermittent exercise in a thermoneutral environment. METHODS: Eleven endurance athletes were tested twice in a randomized crossover design in which 5×5 min of high-intensity running (HIR) were followed by 1 h of passive rest at ~22 degrees C, including either 3 min of whole-body exposure to -110 degrees C (WBC) or a placebo intervention of 3 min walking (PBO). A ramp-test protocol was performed before HIR (R1) and after the 1-h recovery period (R2). Time to exhaustion (tlim) was measured along with alterations in oxygen content of the vastus lateralis (TSI), oxygen consumption (VO2), capillary blood lactate, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during submaximal and maximal running. RESULTS: The difference in tlim between R1 and R2 was lower in WBC than in PBO (P<.05, effect size d=1.13). During R2, TSI was higher in WBC during submaximal and maximal running (P<.01, d=0.68-1.01). In addition, VO2, HR, and RPE were lower at submaximal level of R2 after WBC than in PBO (P=.04 to <.01, d=0.23-0.83). CONCLUSION: WBC improves acute recovery during high-intensity intermittent exercise in thermoneutral conditions. The improvements might be induced by enhanced oxygenation of the working muscles, as well as a reduction in cardiovascular strain and increased work economy at submaximal intensities.
Leppaluoto, J, Westerlund, T, Huttunen, P, Oksa, J, Smolander, J, Dugue, B and Mikkelsson, M. (2008) « Effects of long-term whole-body cold exposures on plasma concentrations of ACTH, beta-endorphin, cortisol, catecholamines and cytokines in healthy females ». Scand J Clin Lab Invest 68 (2) 145-53. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18382932
OBJECTIVE: Cold therapy is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms. The present study was designed to determine the influence of long-term regular exposure to acute cold temperature. Two types of exposure were studied: winter swimming in ice-cold water and whole-body cryotherapy. The outcome was investigated on humoral factors that may account for pain alleviation related to the exposures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the course of 12 weeks, 3 times a week, a group of healthy females (n = 10) was exposed to winter swimming (water 0-2 degrees C) for 20 s and another group (n = 10) to whole-body cryotherapy (air -110 degrees C) for 2 min in a special chamber. Blood specimens were drawn in weeks 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12, on a day when no cold exposure occurred (control specimens) and on a day of cold exposures (cold specimens) before the exposures (0 min), and thereafter at 5 and 35 min. RESULTS: Plasma ACTH and cortisol in weeks 4-12 on time-points 35 min were significantly lower than in week 1, probably due to habituation, suggesting that neither winter swimming nor whole-body cryotherapy stimulated the pituitary-adrenal cortex axis. Plasma epinephrine was unchanged during both experiments, but norepinephrine showed significant 2-fold to 3-fold increases each time for 12 weeks after both cold exposures. Plasma IL-1-beta, IL-6 or TNF alpha did not show any changes after cold exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The main finding was the sustained cold-induced stimulation of norepinephrine, which was remarkably similar between exposures. The frequent increase in norepinephrine might have a role in pain alleviation in whole-body cryotherapy and winter swimming.
Lombardi, G, Lanteri, P, Porcelli, S, Mauri, C, Colombini, A, Grasso, D, . . . Banfi, G. (2013) « Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation ». PLoS One 8 (2) e55803. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23383348
Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110 degrees C to -140 degrees C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.
Lubkowska, A, Chudecka, M, Klimek, A, Szygula, Z and Fraczek, B. (2008) « Acute effect of a single whole-body cryostimulation on prooxidant-antioxidant balance in blood of healthy, young men ». Journal of Thermal Biology 33 (8) 464-7. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T94-4TDK6YG-1/2/f98fc062b231853968748f736254aa4f
- We have examined the prooxidative-antioxidative reaction to extremely low temperatures (-130 °C) during a one-time cryostimulation in 15 young, clinically healthy individuals. 2. The total lipid peroxides as the total oxidative status (TOS) and the total antioxidative status (TAS) were measured in blood plasma collected in the morning of the day of cryostimulation, 30 min after the cryostimulation, and on the following morning. 3. The level of stress expressed by total oxidative status in plasma, resulting from exposure to extremely low temperatures, was statistically significantly lowered 30 min after leaving the cryochamber than prior to the exposure. The next day, the TOS level still remained lower than the initial values. The TAS level decreased after leaving the cryochamber and remained elevated the following day.
Lubkowska, A, Dolegowska, B and Szygula, Z. (2012) « Whole-body cryostimulation–potential beneficial treatment for improving antioxidant capacity in healthy men–significance of the number of sessions ». PLoS One 7 (10) e46352. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23077506
It is claimed that WBC (whole-body cryotherapy) enhances the resistance of the human body, also thanks to the beneficial effect on the antioxidant system. Accordingly, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of a series of whole-body cryostimulations on the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy men. The study was carried out on 30 young and healthy men aged 27.8+/-6.1 years with average body mass index and peak oxygen consumption (46.34+/-6.15 ml kg(-1) *min(-1)). The participants were daily exposed for 3 minutes to cryogenic temperatures (-130 degrees C). Blood samples were obtained in the morning before cryostimulation, again 30 min after exposure and the following day in the morning, during the 1(st), 10(th) and 20(th) session. Analysis concerned changes in plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, glucose, uric acid and ceruloplasmin, and the most important components of the antioxidant system in red blood cells: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, reduced and oxidized glutathione. To assess the oxidative stress level the 8-isoprostane concentration in plasma was measured. The obtained results indicate that cryogenic temperatures in repeated daily treatments result in changes in the peroxidant and antioxidant status. These changes seem to depend on the number of cryostimulations. After 20 daily treatments there was an increase in SOD, SOD:CAT ratio, a decrease in the concentration of reduced and oxidized glutathione and in the activity of GPx. It could be possible that differences in the activity of GSSG-R after 20 treatments depended on the body mass index of participants.
Lubkowska, A, Dolegowska, B, Szygula, Z, Bryczkowska, I, Stanczyk-Dunaj, M, Salata, D and Budkowska, M. (2013) « Winter-swimming as a building-up body resistance factor inducing adaptive changes in the oxidant/antioxidant status ». Scand J Clin Lab Invest 73 (4) 315-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23514015
The aim of our research was to examine whether winter-swimming for five consecutive months results in adaptational changes improving tolerance to stress induced by exposure to cryogenic temperatures during whole-body cryostimulation (WBC). The research involved 15 healthy men, with normal bodyweight, who had never been subjected to either WBC or cold water immersion. During the experiment, the participants were twice subjected to WBC (3 min/- 130 degrees C), namely before the winter-swimming season and after the season. Blood was taken seven times: In the morning before each cryostimulation, 30 min after each cryostimulation and the next morning. Additionally, control blood was collected in the middle of the winter season, in February. Our analysis concerned changes in hematological parameters as well as in reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione, total oxidant status, total antioxidant status and in components of the antioxidant system: Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and 8-Isoprostanes as a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress. We found significant changes in hemoglobin concentration, the number of red blood cells, the hematocrit index and mean corpuscular volume of red blood cell and the percentage of monocytes and granulocytes after the winter swimming season. The response to cryogenic temperatures was milder after five months of winter-swimming. The obtained results may indicate positive adaptive changes in the antioxidant system of healthy winter-swimmers. These changes seem to increase the readiness of the human body to stress factors.
Lubkowska, A and Suska, M. (2011) « The increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure after exposure to cryogenic temperatures in normotensive men as a contraindication for whole-body cryostimulation ». Journal of Thermal Biology 36 (5) 264-8.
Lubkowska, A and Szygula, Z. (2010) « Changes in blood pressure with compensatory heart rate decrease and in the level of aerobic capacity in response to repeated whole-body cryostimulation in normotensive, young and physically active men ». Int J Occup Med Environ Health 23 (4) 367-75. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21306982
OBJECTIVE: In Poland and all over the world, whole-body cryostimulation is becoming more and more popular in the treatment of different diseases and in sport. However, changes that occur in the human body subjected to cryogenic temperatures are still not completely understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in blood circulation and aerobic capacity induced by repeated exposure to whole-body cryostimulation of young and clinically healthy male subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 25 young men, aged 21 +/- 0.9 years, average body weight 74.65 +/- 6.98 kg and height 179.5 +/- 5.12 cm. The participants were exposed to extremely low temperatures in a cryogenic chamber once a day for 15 days. Each session lasted 3 min at -130 degrees C and was preceded by 30-second, adaptation in a vestibule at -60 degrees C. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before entering the chamber, immediately after exiting and 10 min later. We also calculated pulse pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure. Before and after the treatment the maximal oxygen uptake was measured. RESULTS: Our results showed a significant increase in systolic blood pressure after each cryostimulation (by an average of 19 mmHg) and an increase in diastolic blood pressure only after the first cryostimulation (by 6 mm Hg). The increase in systolic blood pressure was accompanied by a significant decrease in heart rate (by about 7 bpm). No adaptation changes were observed after 15 treatments. There were no changes in aerobic capacity after 15 sessions of WBC, however we observed a significant decrease in RBC and hemoglobin concentration. CONCLUSION: Due to the increase in systolic blood pressure after WBC, this kind of physiotherapy treatment is not recommended for people with advanced or not pharmacologically controlled hypertension.
Lubkowska, A, Szygula, Z, Klimek, AJ and Torii, M. (2010) « Do sessions of cryostimulation have influence on white blood cell count, level of IL6 and total oxidative and antioxidative status in healthy men? ». Eur J Appl Physiol 109 (1) 67-72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19779735
The influence of extremely low temperatures on the human body and physiological reactions are not fully recognized. It has been postulated that cryostimulation could modify immunological reactions, leukocytes mobilization and levels of cytokines. The aim of this research was to estimate the influence of a ten sessions 3-min-long exposures to cryogenic temperature (-130 degrees C) on the white blood cell (WBC) count, level of IL6 and the total oxidative and antioxidative status in 15 young, clinically healthy men. Blood samples were obtained in the morning before cryostimulation, again 30 min after treatment and the next day in the morning, both during the first and tenth session. The WBC count, level of IL6 and total lipid peroxides as the total oxidative status and the total antioxidative status (TAS), were measured. After completing a total of ten whole-body therapy sessions a significant increase in WBC count, especially lymphocytes and monocytes was noted. There was an increase in level of IL6 after first and the last cryostimulation the most pronounced after tenth session. On the contrary the TAS level decreased significant after the treatment. It was concluded that repeated expositions to extremely low temperatures use in cryostimulation have mobilization effect on immunological system.
Makinen, TM, Mantysaari, M, Paakkonen, T, Jokelainen, J, Palinkas, LA, Hassi, J, . . . Rintamaki, H. (2008) « Autonomic nervous function during whole-body cold exposure before and after cold acclimation ». Aviat Space Environ Med 79 (9) 875-82. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18785356
INTRODUCTION: Cold habituation could affect sympatho-vagal balance, which modulates cold stress responses. The study examined cardiovascular autonomic function at the sinus node level during controlled breathing and while undertaking isometric exercise during whole-body cold exposure before and after cold acclimation. METHODS: There were 10 male subjects who were exposed to control (25 degrees C) and cold (10 degrees C) environments for 2 h on 10 successive days in a laboratory. Time and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) in terms of root mean square of successive differences in RR intervals, total, high, and low frequency power were determined from controlled breathing at the beginning and end of cold acclimation. Heart rate and blood pressure during an isometric handgrip test (30% MVC for 3 min) were recorded at the beginning and end of cold acclimation. Catecholamines (NE and E), mean skin (Tsk), and rectal temperatures (Trect) were measured. RESULTS: Acute cold exposure increased total (36%), low (16%), and high frequency power (25%) and RMSSD (34%). Cold acclimation resulted in higher Tsk (0.6 degrees C) and lower NE (24%) response in cold. The cold-induced elevation in high frequency power became significant after cold acclimation, while other HRV parameters remained unchanged. A smaller increase in heart rate and blood pressure occurred at 10 degrees C during the handgrip test after cold acclimation. DISCUSSION: Cold exposure increased sympathetic activity, which was blunted after cold acclimation. Parasympathetic activity showed a minor increase in cold, which was enhanced after cold acclimation. In conclusion, cold habituation lowers sympathetic activation and causes a shift toward increased parasympathetic activity.
Markovic, G, Fonda, B and Nejc, Š. (2014) « Does Whole-Body Cryotherapy Affect the Recovery Process after Hamstring Damaging Exercise: A Crossover Study ». British Journal of Sports Medicine 48 (7) 633.1-. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620238
BACKGROUND: Delayed onset muscle soreness, induced by strenuous exercise, is one of the most common recurrent forms of sports injury and is associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical markers, pain, and performance parameters during a 5-day recovery period after a damaging plyometric exercise. We hypothesized that WBC would have beneficial effects on muscle recovery after such an exercise bout. DESIGN: Randomized crossover study design. SETTING: Recreational athletes. PARTICIPANTS: 11 recreational male athletes volunteered in this study. Inclusion criteria were that the subjects were familiar with plyometric exercise, but they did not perform this type of exercise for at least 3 months prior to the study, were not injured or receiving any medications in the last 9 months, and were within normal baseline levels for biochemical markers. INTERVENTIONS: Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -195 degrees C) in the cryo-cabin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, squat- and counter movement-jump, maximal and explosive isometric torque production. RESULTS: Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P<.05) in control group, which indicates the presence of muscle damage. Significant interaction between the control and WBC condition was evident for the rate of torque development (P<.05). Pain measures substantially differed between the WBC and the control condition after the exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study do not provide conclusive support for the use of WBC as a technique to enhance functional recovery after EIMD.
McDermott, BP, Casa, DJ, Ganio, MS, Lopez, RM, Yeargin, SW, Armstrong, LE and Maresh, CM. (2009) « Acute whole-body cooling for exercise-induced hyperthermia: a systematic review ». J Athl Train 44 (1) 84-93. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19180223
OBJECTIVE: To assess existing original research addressing the efficiency of whole-body cooling modalities in the treatment of exertional hyperthermia. DATA SOURCES: During April 2007, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Reviews databases as well as ProQuest for theses and dissertations to identify research studies evaluating whole-body cooling treatments without limits. Key words were cooling, cryotherapy, water immersion, cold-water immersion, ice-water immersion, icing, fanning, bath, baths, cooling modality, heat illness, heat illnesses, exertional heatstroke, exertional heat stroke, heat exhaustion, hyperthermia, hyperthermic, hyperpyrexia, exercise, exertion, running, football, military, runners, marathoner, physical activity, marathoning, soccer, and tennis. DATA SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewers graded each study on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Seven of 89 research articles met all inclusion criteria and a minimum score of 4 out of 10 on the PEDro scale. CONCLUSIONS: After an extensive and critical review of the available research on whole-body cooling for the treatment of exertional hyperthermia, we concluded that ice-water immersion provides the most efficient cooling. Further research comparing whole-body cooling modalities is needed to identify other acceptable means. When ice-water immersion is not possible, continual dousing with water combined with fanning the patient is an alternative method until more advanced cooling means can be used. Until future investigators identify other acceptable whole-body cooling modalities for exercise-induced hyperthermia, ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion are the methods proven to have the fastest cooling rates.
Mila-Kierzenkowska, C, Jurecka, A, Wozniak, A, Szpinda, M, Augustynska, B and Wozniak, B. (2013) « The effect of submaximal exercise preceded by single whole-body cryotherapy on the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in blood of volleyball players ». Oxid Med Cell Longev 2013 409567. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489985
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (-130 degrees C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise), and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise). The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P < 0.001). After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1beta was also lower (P < 0.001) than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.
Mila-Kierzenkowska, C, Wozniak, A, Wozniak, B, Drewa, G, Rakowski, A, Jurecka, A and Rajewski, R. (2009) « Whole-body cryostimulation in kayaker women: a study of the effect of cryogenic temperatures on oxidative stress after the exercise ». J Sports Med Phys Fitness 49 (2) 201-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19528900
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body cryostimulation on the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of lipid peroxidation products in kayaker women in the course of training. METHODS: The study was performed on the group of 9 kayaker women, who underwent two training cycles: one typical ten-day training cycle and the another ten-day cycle preceded by cryostimulation sessions twice a day. The activity of antioxidant enzymes was assayed in erythrocytes, while the concentration of lipid peroxidation products was measured both in erythrocytes and in blood plasma. RESULTS: A statistically significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in erythrocytes and in concentration of conjugated dienes (CD) in blood plasma and erythrocytes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in plasma was revealed in kayaker women after the first six days of training without cryostimulation. Comparing two performed training cycles, after the first six days of training preceded by cryostimulation lower SOD and GPx activity in erythrocytes was detected, as well as lower CD levels in blood plasma and erythrocytes and lower TBARS concentration in blood plasma of kayaker women than after the six days of training without cryostimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-body cryostimulation improves the antioxidant capacity of organism exposed to intense exercise. Brief application of cryogenic temperatures is likely related to the activation of adaptive homeostatic mechanisms in accordance with the hormetic dose-response model.
Miller, E, Markiewicz, L, Saluk, J and Majsterek, I. (2012) « Effect of short-term cryostimulation on antioxidative status and its clinical applications in humans ». Eur J Appl Physiol 112 (5) 1645-52. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21874554
Whole body cryostimulation (WBCT) is becoming popular in medicine and sport as an adjuvant form of treatment since late 1970s. Only a few works concerning antioxidant protection after WBCT have been published. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a ten 3-min-long exposures (one exposure per day) to cryogenic temperature (-130 degrees C) on the level of total antioxidant status (TAS), activity of selected antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and main non-enzymatic antioxidant-uric acid (UA) in WBCT study group (man n = 24; female n = 22) and non-WBCT control subjects (man n = 22; female n = 26). Moreover, we evaluated the lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances products. Their blood samples were collected twice at an interval of 10 days in both study group and control subjects. The activity of antioxidant enzyme and lipid peroxidation was assayed in erythrocytes, while the concentration of uric acid was measured in plasma. After completing a total of ten WBCT sessions a significant increase (p < 0.001) of TAS and UA levels in plasma (p < 0.001) in comparison to non-WBCT was observed. Our data showed that there was statistically significant increase of the activities of SOD in erythrocytes obtained from WBCT study group compared to non-WBCT controls after 10 days of treatment (p < 0.001). It was concluded that expositions to extremely low temperatures use in cryostimulation improve the antioxidant capacity of organism.
Nemet, D, Meckel, Y, Bar-Sela, S, Zaldivar, F, Cooper, DM and Eliakim, A. (2009) « Effect of local cold-pack application on systemic anabolic and inflammatory response to sprint-interval training: a prospective comparative trial ». Eur J Appl Physiol 107 (4) 411-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19652995
We evaluated the effect of cold ice-pack application following a brief sprint-interval training on the balance between anabolic mediators [growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), testosterone], catabolic markers (cortisol, IGFBP-1), and circulating pro [Interlukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1beta]- and anti-inflammatory cytokines [IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra)]. Twelve males, elite junior handball players performed 4 x 250 m treadmill run, at 80% of each individual’s maximal speed, followed by a rest period with and without local cold-pack application. Pre, immediately post, and 60-min post-exercise blood samples were drawn. Exercise was associated with a significant increase in IL-6, GH, IGFBP-3, and testosterone levels. Local cold-pack application was associated with significant decreases in IL-1beta, IL-1ra, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 and a greater increase of IGFBP-1 during recovery. Local ice therapy immediately following sprint-interval training was associated with greater decreases in both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and anabolic hormones supporting some clinical evidence for possible negative effects on athletic performance.
Pournot, H, Bieuzen, F, Louis, J, Mounier, R, Fillard, JR, Barbiche, E and Hausswirth, C. (2011) « Time-course of changes in inflammatory response after whole-body cryotherapy multi exposures following severe exercise ». PLoS One 6 (7) e22748. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21829501
The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n = 11) completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS), the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC) for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day). For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL) -1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), protein C-reactive (CRP) and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post) following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05). Indeed, IL-1beta (Post 1 h) and CRP (Post 24 h) levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h) increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05), TNF-alpha, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory.
Pritchard, KA and Saliba, SA. (2014) « Should athletes return to activity after cryotherapy? ». J Athl Train 49 (1) 95-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23724775
REFERENCE/CITATION: Bleakley CM, Costello JT, Glasgow PD. Should athletes return to sport after applying ice? A systematic review of the effect of local cooling on functional performance. Sports Med. 2012; 42(1):69-87. CLINICAL QUESTION: Does local tissue cooling affect immediate functional performance outcomes in a sport situation? DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE, each from the earliest available record through April 2011. Combinations of 18 medical subheadings or key words were used to complete the search. Study Selection : This systematic review included only randomized controlled trials and crossover studies published in English that examined human participants who were treated with a local cooling intervention. At least 1 functional performance outcome that was measured before and after a cooling intervention had to be reported. Excluded were studies using whole-body cryotherapy or cold-water immersion above the waist and studies that measured strength or force production during evoked muscle contraction. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted by 2 authors using a customized form to evaluate relevant data on study design, eligibility criteria, detailed characteristics of cooling protocols, comparisons, and outcome measures. Disagreement was resolved by consensus or third-party adjudication. To perform an intent-to-treat analysis when possible, data were extracted according to the original allocation groups, and losses to follow-up were noted. The review authors were not blinded to the study author, institution, or journal. For each study, mean differences or standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous outcomes using RevMan (version 5.1; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Treatment effects were based on between-groups comparisons (cryotherapy versus control) using postintervention outcomes or within-group comparisons (precryotherapy versus postcryotherapy). If continuous data were missing standard deviations, other statistics including confidence intervals, standard error, t values, P values, or F values were used to calculate the standard deviation. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool was used to assess the methodologic quality of included studies. Each study was evaluated for sequence generation, allocation concealment, assessor blinding, and incomplete outcome data. Studies were graded as low or high based on the criteria met, but the risk of bias across the studies was consistently high, so meaningful subgroup classifications were not possible. Differences in study quality and intervention details, including duration of cryotherapy interventions and time periods after intervention before follow-up, were potential sources of bias and considered for a subgroup analysis. MAIN RESULTS: Using the search criteria, the authors originally identified 1449 studies. Of these, after title and abstract review, 99 studies were deemed potentially relevant and kept for further analysis (1350 studies were excluded). Of the 99 potentially relevant studies, 35 were included in the final review (64 studies were excluded), with relevant outcomes of strength, power, vertical jump, endurance, agility, speed, performance accuracy, and dexterity reported. The 64 excluded studies were rejected due to intervention relevancy, outcome relevancy, and non-English language. In the 35 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, 665 healthy participants were assessed. Muscle strength (using an isokinetic dynamometer, cable tensiometer, strain-gauge device, or load cell) was assessed in 25 studies, whole-body exercise (vertical jump height, power, timed hop test, sprint time, and time taken to complete running-based agility tests, including carioca runs, shuttle sprints, T-shuttle, and cocontraction tests) was assessed in 6, performance accuracy (throwing or shooting) was assessed in 2, and hand dexterity was assessed in 2. Outcomes before and immediately after cryotherapy intervention were reported in all studies; additional outcome assessments at times ranging from 5 to 180 minutes postintervention were recorded in 11 studies. The review authors reported a high risk of bias: selection bias (poor randomization and concealment of group allocation), performance and detection bias (poor blinding of assessors), and attrition bias (incomplete data). Because of the diversity of studies, particularly with respect to cryotherapy protocols and the potential for rewarming before the posttest, the effects of cryotherapy on functional performance were mixed. From the included studies, the authors concluded that cryotherapy treatment reduced upper and lower extremity muscle strength immediately after cryotherapy. However, increases in force output after cryotherapy were reported in 5 studies. Regardless of the effect of cryotherapy on strength, the clinical meaningfulness of most of the data may not be important due to variability and small effects. Studies reporting outcomes of muscle endurance resulted in conflicting evidence: endurance increased immediately after cryotherapy in 6, whereas muscle endurance decreased in 3 . These conflicting results limit the ability to draw clinically relevant conclusions about the effect of cryotherapy on muscle endurance. The majority of studies evaluating whole-body exercise demonstrated decreases in performance after cryotherapy; these outcomes included vertical jump, sprint, and agility, even when cryotherapy was applied only to a body part. Additionally, cryotherapy appeared to decrease hand dexterity and throwing accuracy immediately after intervention, although an increase in shooting performance postintervention was reported in 1 study . CONCLUSIONS: The authors suggested that the available evidence indicates that athletic performance may be adversely affected when athletes return to play immediately after cryotherapy treatments. Many of the included studies used variable cooling protocols, reflecting differences in time, temperature, and mode of cryotherapy. The majority of the included studies used cryotherapy for at least 20 minutes. However, when considering an immediate return to activity, this cooling duration may not be clinically relevant because cryotherapy applications during practice and competitions usually last less than 20 minutes. When immediate return to activity occurs after cryotherapy, short-duration cold applications or progressive warm-ups should be implemented to prevent a deleterious effect on functional performance.
Puntel, GO, Carvalho, NR, Dobrachinski, F, Salgueiro, AC, Puntel, RL, Folmer, V, . . . Soares, FA. (2013) « Cryotherapy reduces skeletal muscle damage after ischemia/reperfusion in rats ». J Anat 222 (2) 223-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23231035
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cryotherapy on the biochemical and morphological changes in ischemic and reperfused (I/R) gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into control and I/R groups, and divided based on whether or not the rats were submitted to cryotherapy. Following the reperfusion period, biochemical and morphological analyses were performed. Following cryotherapy, a reduction in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and dichlorofluorescein oxidation levels were observed in I/R muscle. Cryotherapy in I/R muscle also minimized effects such as decreased cellular viability, levels of non-protein thiols and calcium ATPase activity as well as increased catalase activity. Cryotherapy also limited mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased the presence of neutrophils in I/R muscle, an effect that was corroborated by reduced myeloperoxidase activity in I/R muscle treated with cryotherapy. The effects of cryotherapy are associated with a reduction in the intensity of the inflammatory response and also with a decrease in mitochondrial dysfunction.
Renata, S, Tomasz, D, Andrzej, K and Slawomir, T. (2011) « Impact of 10 sessions of whole body cryostimulation on cutaneous microcirculation measured by laser Doppler flowmetry ». J Hum Kinet 30 75-83. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23487007
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the basic and evoked blood flow in the skin microcirculation of the hand, one day and ten days after a series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions, in healthy individuals. The study group included 32 volunteers – 16 women and 16 men. The volunteers underwent 10 sessions of cryotherapy in a cryogenic chamber. The variables were recorded before the series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions (first measurement), one day after the last session (second measurement) and ten days later (third measurement). Rest flow, post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, reaction to temperature and arterio-venous reflex index were evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry. The values recorded for rest flow, a post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, a reaction to temperature and arterio – venous reflex index were significantly higher both in the second and third measurement compared to the initial one. Differences were recorded both in men and women. The values of frequency in the range of 0,01 Hz to 2 Hz (heart frequency dependent) were significantly lower after whole-body cryostimulation in both men and women. In the range of myogenic frequency significantly higher values were recorded in the second and third measurement compared to the first one. Recorded data suggest improved response of the cutaneous microcirculation to applied stimuli in both women and men. Positive effects of cryostimulation persist in the tested group for 10 consecutive days.
Russell, M, Birch, J, Love, T, Cook, CJ, Bracken, RM, Taylor, T, . . . Kilduff, LP. (2016) « The effects of a single whole body cryotherapy exposure on physiological, performance and perceptual responses of professional academy soccer players following repeated sprint exercise ». J Strength Cond Res http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27227791
In professional youth soccer players, the physiological, performance and perceptual effects of a single whole body cryotherapy (WBC) session performed shortly after repeated sprint exercise were investigated. In a randomized, counter-balanced and crossover design, 14 habituated English Premier League academy soccer players performed 15 x 30 m sprints (each followed by a 10 m forced deceleration) on two occasions. Within 20 min of exercise cessation, players entered a WBC chamber (Cryo: 30 s at -60 degrees C, 120 s at -135 degrees C) or remained seated (Con) indoors in temperate conditions ( approximately 25 degrees C). Blood and saliva samples, peak power output (countermovement jump) and perceptual indices of recovery and soreness were assessed pre-exercise and immediately, 2 h and 24 h post-exercise. When compared to Con, a greater testosterone response was observed at 2 h (+32.5 +/- 32.3 pg[BULLET OPERATOR]ml, +21%) and 24 h (+50.4 +/- 48.9 pg[BULLET OPERATOR]ml, +28%) post-exercise (both P=0.002) in Cryo (trial x treatment interaction: P=0.001). No between trial differences were observed for other salivary (cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio), blood (lactate and Creatine Kinase), performance (peak power output) or perceptual (recovery or soreness) markers (all trial x treatment interactions: P>0.05); all of which were influenced by exercise (time effects: all P<0.05). A single session of WBC performed within 20 min of repeated sprint exercise elevated testosterone concentrations for 24 h but did not affect any other performance, physiological or perceptual measurements taken. While unclear, WBC may be efficacious for professional soccer players during congested fixture periods.
Savalli, L, Olave, P, Sendin, MIH, Laboute, E, Trouvé, P and Puig, PL. (2006) « Cryothérapie corps entier à -110 °C. Mesure des températures cutanées et centrale chez le sportif ». Science & Sports 21 (1) 36-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VN5-4JB9MV2-1/2/6face243fdad951f0d60ba7b1bf706e9
Résumé Objectif. – L’objectif de ce travail est de mesurer les effets d’une séance de CCE (cryothérapie corps entier) sur les températures cutanées et centrales, à partir du protocole de soins utilisé maintenant depuis près de deux ans en pratique quotidienne, chez le sportif, la (CCE) à -110 °C étant utilisée depuis les années 1980 essentiellement dans le nord de l’Europe pour le traitement des rhumatismes inflammatoires et dégénératifs mais aussi en médecine et en traumatologie du sport. Méthode. – Onze sportifs ont été inclus dans l’étude. Les températures cutanées ont été mesurées, en différents points anatomiques, par un thermomètre laser, cinq minutes avant la séance puis immédiatement après, à 5, 10 puis 20 minutes. La température centrale a été mesurée par un thermomètre tympanique. La durée de la séance était de quatre minutes. Résultats. – Au sortir de la chambre de froid, les températures les plus basses ont été mesurées au niveau du mollet avec une température moyenne inférieure à 10°. Les températures cutanées remontent très rapidement, mais à 20 minutes, les températures mesurées restent inférieures aux températures de référence. En ce qui concerne la température centrale, il a été constaté une baisse significative, mais différée et transitoire de 0,63 °C observée à cinq minutes (p = 0,03). À 20 minutes la différence n’est plus significative. Aims. – Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) at -110 °C has been in use since the eighties, essentially in Northern Europe, for the treatment of rheumatism diseases and also in sports medicine and traumatology. The objective of this work is to measure the effects of a WBC session on skin and core body temperatures, based on the medical protocol that we have been using on sportsmen and sportswomen for nearly two years, on a daily basis. Method. – Eleven sportspersons were included in the study, 10 men and 1 woman. Skin temperatures were measured in various places on the body using a laser thermometer, 5 minutes before the session and then immediately afterwards and 5, 10 and finally 20 minutes later. The core body temperature was measured using an ear thermometer. The cryotherapy session lasted 4 minutes. Results. – On exiting the cold chamber, the lowest temperatures were measured on the shin, with an average value of less than 10 °C. The skin temperatures rose very quickly, but the measured values remained lower than the reference temperatures after 20 minutes. As far as the core body temperature is concerned, we observed a significant decrease, but the value observed was both deferred and transient: 0.63 °C observed after 5 minutes. The difference was no longer significant after 20 minutes.
Savic, M, Fonda, B and Sarabon, N. (2013) « Actual temperature during and thermal response after whole-body cryotherapy in cryo-cabin ». Journal of Thermal Biology 38 (4) 186-91. Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves exposing minimally dressed participants to very cold air (injecting liquid nitrogen with temperature -195°C), either in a specially designed chamber (cryo- chamber) or cabin (cryo-cabin), for a short period of time. The aim of this study was to examine the actual temperature of the air in the cryo-cabin at different locations throughout the cabin by using human subjects and a manikin. Additionally, we monitored skin temperature before and for 60 min after the cryo-cabin session. Twelve subjects completed one 3 min cryo-cabin session. Temperature next to the skin was assessed during the session, while the skin temperature was monitored before, 3 min after and every 10 min for 60 min after completing the session. There was a statistically significant interaction (time x position) for temperature among the different body parts during the WBC, and for skin temperature among different body parts after the cryo-cabin session. Statistically significant time effects during and following cryo-cabin session were present for all body parts. We showed that actual temperature in the cryo-cabin is substantially different from the one reported by the manufacturer. Thermal response after cryo-cabin session is similar to response observed after cryo-chamber cold exposure reported in previously published studies. This could be of great practical value as cryo-cabins are less expensive and easier to use compared to cryo-chambers.
Schaal, K, Le Meur, Y, Bieuzen, F, Petit, O, Hellard, P, Toussaint, JF and Hausswirth, C. (2013) « Effect of recovery mode on postexercise vagal reactivation in elite synchronized swimmers ». Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 38 (2) 126-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23438222
This study investigated the effect of whole-body cryostimulation (WBC), contrast-water therapy (CWT), active recovery (ACT), and passive condition (PAS) protocols on the parasympathetic reactivation and metabolic parameters of recovery in elite synchronized swimmers who performed 2 simulated competition ballets (B1 and B2) separated by 70 min. After determining maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max400)) and blood lactate concentrations ([La(-)](b400)) during a 400-m swim trial, 11 swimmers performed 1 protocol per week in randomized order. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured at rest (PreB1), 5 min after B1 (PostB1), before B2 (PreB2), and 5 min after B2 (PostB2). VO(2peak) was measured at PostB1 and PostB2, and [La(-)](b) was measured at PostB1, PreB2, and PostB2. PostB1 VO(2peak) and VO(2max400) were similar, but PostB1 [La(-)](b) was higher than [La(-)](b400) (p = 0.004). Each ballet caused significant decreases in HRV indices. At PreB2, all HRV indices had returned to PreB1 levels in the CWT, PAS, and ACT protocols, whereas the WBC protocol yielded a 2- to 4-fold increase in vagal-related HRV indices, compared with PreB1. WBC and ACT both increased [La(-)](b) recovery, compared with PAS (p = 0.06 and p = 0.04, respectively), and yielded an increased VO(2peak) from B1 to B2; however, it decreased after PAS (+5.4%, +3.4%, and -3.6%; p < 0.01). This study describes the physiological response to repeated maximal work bouts that are highly specific to elite synchronized swimming. In the context of short-term recovery, WBC yields a strong parasympathetic reactivation, and shows similar effectiveness to ACT on the metabolic parameters of recovery and subsequent exercise capacity.
Schaal, K, Le Meur, Y, Rebeyrol, J, Louis, J, Petit, O, Hellard, P, . . . Hausswirth, C. (2013) Whole body cryostimulation as a daily recovery strategy during intensified training in elite-level synchronized swimming.
Schaal, K, Y, LEM, Louis, J, Filliard, JR, Hellard, P, Casazza, G and Hausswirth, C. (2015) « Whole-Body Cryostimulation Limits Overreaching in Elite Synchronized Swimmers ». Med Sci Sports Exerc 47 (7) 1416-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25314578
INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently undergo periods of intensified training (IT) within their normal training program. These periods can lead athletes into functional overreaching, characterized by high perceived fatigue, impaired sleep, and performance. Because whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) has been proven to be an effective recovery method in the short term (<76 h), we investigated whether daily WBC sessions during IT could prevent exercise and sleep-related signs of overreaching. METHODS: After a normal training week (BASE), 10 elite synchronized swimmers performed two 2-wk IT periods in a randomized crossover fashion using WBC daily (ITWBC) or not (ITCON), separated by 9 d of light training. Swim time trials (400 m) were performed at BASE and after each IT to quantify blood lactate ([La]B), HR (HR400), salivary alpha amylase ([alpha-amylase]s400), and cortisol ([cortisol]s400) responses. Swimmers wore a wrist actigraph nightly to monitor sleep patterns. RESULTS: Swim speed (400 m), [La]B400, and [alpha-amylase]s400 decreased from BASE to ITCON, although no significant changes were found after ITWBC. Decreased swim speed was correlated to decreased HR400 and [cortisol]s400. During ITCON, significant decreases in actual sleep duration (-21 +/- 7 min) and sleep efficiency (-1.9% +/- 0.8%) were observed, with increased sleep latency (+11 +/- 5 min) and fatigue compared with BASE, although these variables did not change during ITWBC. Using a qualitative statistical analysis, we observed that daily WBC use resulted in a 98%, 59%, 66%, and 78% chance of preserving these respective variables compared with ITCON. CONCLUSION: WBC use during IT helped mitigate the signs of functional overreaching observed during ITCON, such as reduced sleep quantity, increased fatigue, and impaired exercise capacity. These results support the daily use of WBC by athletes seeking to avoid functional overreaching during key periods of competition preparation.
Selfe, J, Alexander, J, Costello, JT, May, K, Garratt, N, Atkins, S, . . . Richards, J. (2014) « The effect of three different (-135 degrees C) whole body cryotherapy exposure durations on elite rugby league players ». PLoS One 9 (1) e86420. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489726
BACKGROUND: Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) is the therapeutic application of extreme cold air for a short duration. Minimal evidence is available for determining optimal exposure time. PURPOSE: To explore whether the length of WBC exposure induces differential changes in inflammatory markers, tissue oxygenation, skin and core temperature, thermal sensation and comfort. METHOD: This study was a randomised cross over design with participants acting as their own control. Fourteen male professional first team super league rugby players were exposed to 1, 2, and 3 minutes of WBC at -135 degrees C. Testing took place the day after a competitive league fixture, each exposure separated by seven days. RESULTS: No significant changes were found in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin six. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in deoxyhaemoglobin for gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis were found. In vastus lateralis significant reductions (p<0.05) in oxyhaemoglobin and tissue oxygenation index (p<0.05) were demonstrated. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in skin temperature were recorded. No significant changes were recorded in core temperature. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in thermal sensation and comfort were recorded. CONCLUSION: Three brief exposures to WBC separated by 1 week are not sufficient to induce physiological changes in IL-6 or core temperature. There are however significant changes in tissue oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index, skin temperature and thermal sensation. We conclude that a 2 minute WBC exposure was the optimum exposure length at temperatures of -135 degrees C and could be applied as the basis for future studies.
Smolander, J, Mikkelsson, M, Oksa, J, Westerlund, T, Leppaluoto, J and Huttunen, P. (2004) « Thermal sensation and comfort in women exposed repeatedly to whole-body cryotherapy and winter swimming in ice-cold water ». Physiol Behav 82 (4) 691-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15327918
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC; -110 degrees C) and winter swimming (WS) in ice-cold water are severe ambient cold exposures, which are voluntarily practiced by humans in minimal clothing. The purpose was to examine thermal sensation and thermal comfort associated with WBC and WS. Twenty women similar in body mass index, age, physical activity, and use of hormonal contraception were pairwise randomized either to the WBC group or the WS group. The duration of each WBC exposure was 2 min, which was repeated three times per week for 3 months (13 weeks). Similar exposure frequency was used for the WS group, but each exposure lasted 20 s in outdoor conditions. Thermal sensation and comfort were asked with standard scales. After WBC, 65% of the thermal sensation votes were ‘neutral’ or ‘slightly cool.’ After WS, 81% of the thermal sensation votes were ‘warm,’ ‘neutral,’ or ‘slightly cool.’ Majority of comfort votes immediately after exposures in WBC group (98%) and in the WS group (93%) were ‘comfortable’ or ‘slightly uncomfortable.’ Thermal sensation and comfort became habituated in both groups at an early stage of trials, but the changes were less conclusive in WS group due to variable conditions outdoors. In the WBC group, cold sensation was less intense already after the second exposure. In conclusion, repeated exposures to WBC and WS in healthy women were mostly well tolerated and comfortable. The results indicate that during repeated severe whole-body cold stress of short duration, thermal sensation and comfort become habituated during the first exposures.
Stacey, DL, Gibala, MJ, Martin Ginis, KA and Timmons, BW. (2010) « Effects of recovery method after exercise on performance, immune changes, and psychological outcomes ». J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 40 (10) 656-65. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20479533
STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial using a repeated-measures design. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of commonly used recovery interventions on time trial performance, immune changes, and psychological outcomes. BACKGROUND: The use of cryotherapy is popular among athletes, but few studies have simultaneously examined physiological and psychological responses to different recovery strategies. METHODS: Nine active men performed 3 trials, consisting of three 50-kJ « all out » cycling bouts, with 20 minutes of recovery after each bout. In a randomized order, different recovery interventions were applied after each ride for a given visit: rest, active recovery (cycling at 50 W), or cryotherapy (cold tub with water at 10 degrees C). Blood samples obtained during each session were analyzed for lactate, IL-6, total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte cell counts. Self-assessments of pain, perceived exertion, and lower extremity sensations were also completed. RESULTS: Time trial performance averaged 118 +/- 10 seconds (mean +/- SEM) for bout 1 and was 8% and 14% slower during bouts 2 (128 +/- 11 seconds) and 3 (134 +/- 11 seconds), respectively, with no difference between interventions (time effect, P</=.05). Recovery intervention did not influence lactate or IL-6, although greater mobilization of total leukocytes and neutrophils was observed with cryotherapy. Lymphopenia during recovery was greater with cryotherapy. Participants reported that their lower extremities felt better after cryotherapy (mean +/- SEM, 6.0 +/- 0.7 out of 10) versus active recovery (4.8 +/- 0.9) or rest (2.8 +/- 0.6) (trial effect, P</=.05). CONCLUSION: Common recovery interventions did not influence performance, although cryotherapy created greater immune cell perturbation and the perception that the participants’ lower extremities felt better.
Sutkowy, P, Augustynska, B, Wozniak, A and Rakowski, A. (2014) « Physical exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy in evaluating the level of lipid peroxidation products and other oxidant stress indicators in kayakers ». Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014 402631. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24864189
The influence of exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy men was assessed. The study included 16 kayakers of the Polish National Team, aged 22.7 +/- 2.6, subjected to WBC (-120 degrees C–145 degrees C; 3 min) twice a day for the first 10 days of a 19-day physical training cycle: pre exercise morning stimulation and post exercise afternoon recovery. Blood samples were taken on Day 0 (baseline) and on Days 5, 11 and 19. The serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, vitamin E, urea, cortisol, and testosterone were determined, along with the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and morphological blood parameters. On 5th day of exercise/WBC, the baseline GPx activity decreased by 15.1% (P < 0.05), while on 19th day, it increased by 19.7% (P < 0.05) versus Day 5. On Day 19 TBARS concentration decreased versus baseline and Day 5 (by 15.9% and 17.4%, resp.; P < 0.01). On 19 Day urea concentration also decreased versus 11 Day; however, on 5th and 11th days the level was higher versus baseline. Combining exercise during longer training cycles with WBC may be advantageous.
Sutkowy, P, Wozniak, A and Rajewski, P. (2015) « Single whole-body cryostimulation procedure versus single dry sauna bath: comparison of oxidative impact on healthy male volunteers ». Biomed Res Int 2015 406353. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25866782
Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS) and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC) environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n = 10; 26.2 +/- 4.6 years) and a single WBC procedure (n = 15; 27.5 +/- 3.1 years). In the subjects’ blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer) and blood plasma (TBARSpl) were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.
Swenson, C, Sward, L and Karlsson, J. (1996) « Cryotherapy in sports medicine ». Scand J Med Sci Sports 6 (4) 193-200. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8896090
The use of cryotherapy, i.e. the application of cold for the treatment of injury or disease, is widespread in sports medicine today. It is an established method when treating acute soft tissue injuries, but there is a discrepancy between the scientific basis for cryotherapy and clinical studies. Various methods such as ice packs, ice towels, ice massage, gel packs, refrigerant gases and inflatable splints can be used. Cold is also used to reduce the recovery time as part of the rehabilitation programme both after acute injuries and in the treatment of chronic injuries. Cryotherapy has also been shown to reduce pain effectively in the post-operative period after reconstructive surgery of the joints. Both superficial and deep temperature changes depend on the method of application, initial temperature and application time. The physiological and biological effects are due to the reduction in temperature in the various tissues, together with the neuromuscular action and relaxation of the muscles produced by the application of cold. Cold increases the pain threshold, the viscosity and the plastic deformation of the tissues but decreases the motor performance. The application of cold has also been found to decrease the inflammatory reaction in an experimental situation. Cold appears to be effective and harmless and few complications or side-effects after the use of cold therapy are reported. Prolonged application at very low temperatures should, however, be avoided as this may cause serious side-effects, such as frost-bite and nerve injuries. Practical applications, indications and contraindications are discussed.
Szczepanowska-Wolowiec, B, Dudek, J, Wolowiec, P and Kotela, I. (2010) « [The influence of cryochamber on parameters of blood pressure and pulse] ». Przegl Lek 67 (5) 360-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20684337
INTRODUCTION: The influence of whole body cryotherapy on human body. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on a group of 50 patients of the Rehabilitation Ward in Wojewodzki Szpital Zespolony in Kielce suffering from chronic pain as a sequel of degenerative-deformative changes and residing. Physiotherapy consisted of treatments in cryo-chamber and physical exercises. RESULTS: The average heart rate in the study group before the treatment amounted to 66.5 beats/min +/- 5.7 after the courses of treatments it constituted to 63.1 beats/min. +/- 3.6 at the significance level p < 0.001. The average value of systolic blood pressure in the study group before treatments accounted for 118.7 mmHg +/- 10.8 after the course of treatments amounted to 119.9 mmHg +/- 11.6 at the significance level p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The single treatment of the whole body cryotherapy and 10 courses of those combined with physical exercises caused statistically significant reduction in the heart rate and pressure parameters. The downward trend was observed in all courses of treatments conducted in this study.
Szygula, Z, Lubkowska, A, Giemza, C, Skrzek, A, Bryczkowska, I and Dolegowska, B. (2014) « Hematological parameters, and hematopoietic growth factors: EPO and IL-3 in response to whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) in military academy students ». PLoS One 9 (4) e93096. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24695100
The effects of extreme cold on the human body are not fully understood, there are also no reports on the effect of cryogenic temperatures on the levels of erythropoietin (EPO) and interleukin 3 (IL-3), two important factors that regulate hematopoiesis. AIM: determination of changes in peripheral blood cell counts and EPO and IL-3 levels induced by a series of 10, 20 and 30 standard whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) treatments. The study involved 45 men, experimental group (EXP, n = 30) subjected to 30 WBC treatments (-130 degrees C, treatment duration: 3 minutes) and a control group (CON, n = 15). Blood samples were collected before the series of treatments and after 10, 20 and 30 treatments. After 10 and 20 treatments we observed lower red blood cell counts and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels compared to baseline (p<0.05) and the control group (p<0.05). Additionally we observed an increase in hemoglobin concentration in plasma (p<0.05), and bilirubin after 10 and 20 treatments, and a decrease in plasma concentration of haptoglobin after 10, 20 and 30 treatments (p<0.05). The number of leukocytes was higher after 10 and 20 WBC treatments compared to baseline and the CON group. EPO concentration in plasma was elevated and the concentration of IL-3 was lower after 10, 20 and 30 WBC treatments. The decrease in indices of the erythrocytic system, plasma hemoglobin and bilirubin, with a simultaneous decrease in haptoglobin concentrations after 10 and 20 WBC treatments, may be due to increased intravascular hemolysis. At the same time there was a small, but statistically significant increase in the concentration of EPO stimulated erythropoiesis which could facilitate a return of erythrocytic system indices to initial levels after 30 WBC treatments. Changes in the white blood cell system showed transient mobilization of this system under the influence of WBC.
Utsunomiya, M, Nitta, K, Sawagichi, H, Yoshikawa, A, Karasuno, H, Morozumi, K, . . . Abe, K. (2010) « Changes in Blood Flow, Temperature and Muscle Endurance in Association with Cryotherapy ». Journal of Physical Therapy Science 22 (1) 43-9.
Vieira, A, Bottaro, M, Ferreira-Junior, JB, Vieira, C, Cleto, VA, Cadore, EL, . . . Brown, LE. (2015) « Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout? ». Open Access J Sports Med 6 49-54. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25750548
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean +/- standard deviation age = 23.9+/-5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at -110 degrees C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60 degrees . s(-1) concentric and 180 degrees . s(-1) eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE.
Westerlund, T, Oksa, J, Smolander, J and Mikkelsson, M. (2003) « Thermal responses during and after whole-body cryotherapy (-110°C) ». J Therm Biol 28 (8) 601-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T94-49MX21W-1/2/35434ce2545d64c49e043dba3a8fa0e5
The effect of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on rectal and skin temperatures was measured in healthy subjects before, during and after WBC exposure. WBC did not cause any significant change in rectal temperature. The lowest local skin temperatures were recorded in the forearm, 5.2 (2.8)°C, and in the calf, 5.3 (3.0)°C. WBC involves no risk for frostbites. After WBC, all skin temperatures recovered rapidly, indicating that the analgetic effects of WBC only occur during a limited period after the exposure.
Westerlund, T, Oksa, J, Smolander, J and Mikkelsson, M. (2009) « Neuromuscular adaptation after repeated exposure to whole-body cryotherapy (-110 °C) ». Journal of Thermal Biology 34 (5) 226-31. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T94-4VRP2B3-2/2/634f09ca8a37fcd483b7d24fb9a4077a
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of single and repeated whole-body cryotherapy (WBC, air -110 °C) on the neuromuscular performance in healthy subjects (n=14). The flight times in a drop-jump exercise decreased after a single WBC exposure, but these changes almost vanished after repeated WBC for 3 months. This adaptation was accompanied by a decreased co-contraction of lower leg muscles during the drop-jump. In conclusion, in dynamic exercise, neuromuscular functioning may be able to adapt to repeated WBC, which might enhance the effects of therapeutic exercises in patients after the WBC.
Westerlund, T, Smolander, J, Uusitalo-Koskinen, A and Mikkelsson, M. (2004) « The blood pressure responses to an acute and long-term whole-body cryotherapy (-110°C) in men and women ». Journal of Thermal Biology 29 (6) 285-90. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T94-4CTTJ9R-1/2/1cda6a0f5f1164a269b137b86700cf0d
The blood pressure responses to an acute and long-term (three months) whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) were measured in men and women. Acute cold exposure (-10°C, -60°C, -110°C) increased both systolic and diastolic blood pressures temporarily. Neither significant gender differences nor adaptation in blood pressures were found during WBC. The variation of individual responses to the acute and long-term WBC was wide.
Westerlund, T, Smolander, J, Uusitalo-Koskinen, A and Mikkelsson, M. (2004) « The blood pressure responses to an acute and long-term whole-body cryotherapy (-110C) in men and women ». Journal of Thermal Biology 29 (6) 285-90. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T94-4CTTJ9R-1/2/1cda6a0f5f1164a269b137b86700cf0d
The blood pressure responses to an acute and long-term (three months) whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) were measured in men and women. Acute cold exposure (-10C, -60C, -110C) increased both systolic and diastolic blood pressures temporarily. Neither significant gender differences nor adaptation in blood pressures were found during WBC. The variation of individual responses to the acute and long-term WBC was wide.
Westerlund, T, Smolander, J, Uusitalo-Koskinen, A and Mikkelsson, M. (2004) « The blood pressure responses to an acute and long-term whole-body cryotherapy (−110°C) in men and women ». Journal of Thermal Biology 29 (6) 285-90.
Wozniak, A, Mila-Kierzenkowska, C, Szpinda, M, Chwalbinska-Moneta, J, Augustynska, B and Jurecka, A. (2013) « Whole-body cryostimulation and oxidative stress in rowers: the preliminary results ». Arch Med Sci 9 (2) 303-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671442
INTRODUCTION: The effect of whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) on the biomarkers of oxidative stress, lysosomal enzymes, creatine kinase and cortisol was studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The rowers underwent two 6-day training cycles: with pre-training daily WBC (temperature: from -125 degrees C to -150 degrees C) and without cryostimulation (control). Blood samples were taken before and after the third and sixth day of training. RESULTS: The activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase was lower (by 44% and 42%, respectively) after the third day of training with WBC than without WBC. The concentration of lipid peroxidation products was also lower after the training preceded by WBC. Moreover, the acid phosphatase activity was 50% lower after the third day of training with WBC than training without WBC. Considering the antioxidant enzymes activity during training without WBC, the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity was observed after the third day of training (by about 74% and 100%, respectively). The level of lipid peroxidation products also increased after the training without WBC. No statistically significant changes were observed in creatine kinase activity after the training preceded with WBC, while after the training without WBC activity of this enzyme was two-fold higher than before the training. CONCLUSIONS: The use of WBC prior to training may reduce the risk of oxidative stress and the extent of muscle fibre injuries provoked by intense exercise. The WBC seems to be an effective and safe method for limiting exercise-induced damage; thus it may be used in biological regeneration of sportsmen.
Wozniak, A, Wozniak, B, Drewa, G and Mila-Kierzenkowska, C. (2007) « The effect of whole-body cryostimulation on the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in blood of elite kayakers after training ». Eur J Appl Physiol 101 (5) 533-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17668231
The effect of whole-body cryostimulation prior to kayak training on the prooxidant-antioxidant balance was evaluated and compared to the effect of a single cryostimulation treatment in untrained men. The kayakers underwent a ten-day training cycle with pre-training daily whole-body cryostimulation for three min (temperature: -120 to -140 degrees C) and training without cryostimulation as a control. Blood samples were obtained before and after the sixth and the tenth day of training and from the untrained men before and 20 min after cryostimulation. In untrained men cryostimulation induced an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 36% (P<0.001) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by 68% (P<0.01) in the erythrocytes and an increase in the conjugated dienes (CD) in plasma by 36% (P<0.05) and in the erythrocytes by 71% (P<0.001). In the kayakers comparing both types of training after the sixth day, the level of CD in plasma was 46 (P<0.001) and 40% (P<0.01) lower in erythrocytes, and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in plasma was 24% (P<0.05) lower with pre-training cryostimulation. After the sixth day of training with cryostimulation, SOD activity was also 47% (P<0.001) lower, while GPx activity after the tenth day was reduced by more than 50% (P<0.01) as compared to control training. Whole-body cryostimulation per se stimulates the generation of reactive oxygen species. Yet, the oxidative stress induced by kayak training was reduced by prior exposure to extremely low temperatures.
Wozniak, A, Wozniak, B, Drewa, G, Mila-Kierzenkowska, C and Rakowski, A. (2007) « The effect of whole-body cryostimulation on lysosomal enzyme activity in kayakers during training ». Eur J Appl Physiol 100 (2) 137-42. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17458576
Effects of whole-body cryostimulation on lysosomal enzyme activity: acid phosphatase (AcP), arylsulphatase (ASA) and cathepsin D (CTS D), as well as on the creatine kinase (CK), and the cortisol concentration in the serum of kayakers during training were studied. Additionally, the effect of a single cryostimulation treatment in untrained men was evaluated. The kayakers were subjected to a ten-day training cycle, in which training sessions were preceded by whole-body cryostimulation at a temperature ranging from -120 to -140 degrees C, and to a control training without cryostimulation. Blood samples were taken from the kayakers before the training and after the sixth and tenth day of training and from untrained men before and after cryostimulation. The single cryostimulation caused a 30% (P < 0.05) decrease in the CK activity in untrained men. After the sixth day of training with cryostimulation, the activity of ASA was 46% (P < 0.001), AcP 32% (P < 0.05) and CK 34% lower (P < 0.05) than after the sixth day of training without cryostimulation. The results support that preceding training with whole-body cryostimulation alleviates exertion stress by a stabilisation of lysosomal membranes.
Yanagisawa, O, Homma, T, Okuwaki, T, Shimao, D and Takahashi, H. (2007) « Effects of cooling on human skin and skeletal muscle ». Eur J Appl Physiol 100 (6) 737-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17479279
To investigate the effects of cooling on local temperature and circulation in the skin and skeletal muscle at different cooling temperatures. Ten male subjects (mean age 24.9 years) participated in this study. Intramuscular temperatures were measured by inserting two 22-gauge temperature probes (needle length; 8 and 18 mm) into the ankle dorsiflexors, while skin temperature was measured using a thermocouple attached to the leg skin anteriorly. Near-infrared spectroscopy was also used to evaluate the concentration changes in oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin/myoglobin in local skin and skeletal muscle. These measurements were simultaneously performed during the 10-min noncooling, 30-min cooling (cooling pad temperature; 0, 10, or 20 degrees C), and 60-min recovery periods. Under all cooling conditions, skin and intramuscular temperatures decreased during cooling (P < 0.01) and began to increase after the cooling pad was removed. However, these values did not return to baseline values during the recovery period (P < 0.01). Moreover, tissue temperatures tended to show lower values during cooling at lower cooling temperatures. All hemoglobin/myoglobin concentrations also showed a concomitant significant decrease during cooling under three cooling conditions (P < 0.01); the oxygenated and total hemoglobin/myoglobin concentrations did not return to the exact values before cooling during the recovery period. This study suggested that the rate of decrease in tissue temperature depends on the cooling temperature and the effects of cooling on tissue temperatures and circulation tend to be maintained during 60 min post-cooling period despite the cooling temperature.
Zagrobelny, Z, Halawa, B, Jezierski, C and Wawrowska, A. (1993) « [Effect of a single cooling of the entire body in the cryogenic chamber on selected hemodynamic parameters and blood serum hormone levels in healty subjects] ». Pol Tyg Lek 48 (14-15) 303-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8415240
Zalewski, P, Bitner, A, Slomko, J, Szrajda, J, Klawe, JJ, Tafil-Klawe, M and Newton, JL. (2014) « Whole-body cryostimulation increases parasympathetic outflow and decreases core body temperature ». J Therm Biol 45 75-80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25436954
The cardiovascular, autonomic and thermal response to whole-body cryostimulation exposure are not completely known. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate objectively and noninvasively autonomic and thermal reactions observed after short exposure to very low temperatures. We examined 25 healthy men with mean age 30.1 +/- 3.7 years and comparable anthropomorphical characteristic. Each subject was exposed to cryotherapeutic temperatures in a cryogenic chamber for 3 min (approx. -120 degrees C). The cardiovascular and autonomic parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force Monitor. The changes in core body temperature were determined with the Vital Sense telemetric measurement system. Results show that 3 min to cryotherapeutic temperatures causes significant changes in autonomic balance which are induced by peripheral and central blood volume changes. Cryostimulation also induced changes in core body temperature, maximum drop of core temperature was observed 50-60 min after the stimulation. Autonomic and thermal reactions to cryostimulation were observed up to 6 h after the exposure and were not harmful for examined subjects.
Zalewski, P, Klawe, JJ, Pawlak, J, Tafil-Klawe, M and Newton, J. (2013) « Thermal and hemodynamic response to whole-body cryostimulation in healthy subjects ». Cryobiology 66 (3) 295-302. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23535554
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is an increasing applied cryotherapeutic method, that involves application of a cryotherapeutic factor to stimulate the body by the means of intense hypothermia of virtually the body’s entire area. This method is still not well recognized in Western Europe. However in recent years it is becoming increasingly popular in sports medicine and also in clinical application. Cryotherapeutic agents used in WBC are considered to be a strong stress stimulus which is associated with a variety of changes in functional parameters, particularly of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems. However, such strong influence upon the entire body could be associated with the risk of unexpected reactions which might be dangerous for homeostasis. The present study evaluated the complex hemodynamic physiological reactions in response to WBC exposure in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy male volunteers participated. Each subject was exposed to WBC (-120 degrees C) for 3-min. None of the participants had been exposed to such conditions previously. The research was conducted with modern and reliable measurements techniques, which assessed complex hemodynamic reactions and skin temperature changes non-invasively. All measurements were performed four times (before WBC, after WBC, WBC+3h and WBC+6h) with a Task Force Monitor (TFM – CNSystems, Medizintechnik, Gratz, Austria). Body superficial temperature was measured by infrared thermographic techniques – infra-red camera Flir P640 (Flir Systems Inc., Sweden). Our results show a significant decrease in heart rate, cardiac output, and increase in stroke volume, total peripheral resistance and baroreceptors reflex sensitivity. These changes were observed just after WBC exposure. At stages WBC+3h and WBC+6h there was observed a significant drop in baroreceptors reflex sensitivity due to increased thermogenesis. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that WBC strongly stimulates the baroreceptor cardiac reflex in response to body fluid changes which sequentially modulate HR and BP control in supine and resting healthy subjects. The study was performed on randomized and homogenic group of young healthy subjects. Our findings are important for WBC safety determination in research and clinical studies.
Ziemann, E, Olek, RA, Kujach, S, Grzywacz, T, Antosiewicz, J, Garsztka, T and Laskowski, R. (2012) « Five-day whole-body cryostimulation, blood inflammatory markers, and performance in high-ranking professional tennis players ». J Athl Train 47 (6) 664-72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23182015
CONTEXT: Tournament season can provoke overreaching syndrome in professional tennis players, which may lead to deteriorated performance. Thus, appropriate recovery methods are crucial for athletes in order to sustain high-level performance and avoid injuries. We hypothesized that whole-body cryostimulation could be applied to support the recovery process. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of 5 days of whole-body cryostimulation combined with moderate-intensity training on immunologic, hormonal, and hematologic responses; resting metabolic rate; and tennis performance in a posttournament season. DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. SETTING: National Olympic Sport Centre. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Twelve high-ranking professional tennis players. INTERVENTION(S): Participants followed a moderate-intensity training program. A subgroup was treated with the 5-day whole-body cryostimulation (-120 degrees C) applied twice a day. The control subgroup participated in the training only. Main Outcome Measure(s): Pretreatment and posttreatment blood samples were collected and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase. Resting metabolic rate and performance of a tennis drill were also assessed. RESULTS: Proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha) decreased and pleiotropic cytokine (interleukin 6) and cortisol increased in the group exposed to cryostimulation. In the same group, greater stroke effectiveness during the tennis drill and faster recovery were observed. Neither the training program nor cryostimulation affected resting metabolic rate. CONCLUSIONS: Professional tennis players experienced an intensified inflammatory response after the completed tournament season, which may lead to overreaching. Applying whole-body cryostimulation in conjunction with moderate-intensity training was more effective for the recovery process than the training itself. The 5-day exposure to cryostimulation twice a day ameliorated the cytokine profile, resulting in a decrease in tumor necrosis factor alpha and an increase in interleukin 6.